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Cover page -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Approval page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Declaration-         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  iii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        --       -        -        v

Table of content   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii


Background of the study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  1

Statement of the problem        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  5

Purpose of the study      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

Significance of the study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  7

Scope of the study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  8

Research question          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  8


The development of safety standard in Nigeria

and factory act 1958-1990      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

Causes of accidents in workshop      -        -        -        -        -        -        11

Types of accident that commonly occur in technical workshop        -                  15

Strategies for enforcement of safety in technical workshop    -                  16

Summary of review of literature       -        -        -        -        -        -        17


Area of the study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  19

Research design    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

Population of study       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

Sampling techniques      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

Administration of the instrument      -        -        -        -        -        -        21

Validation   of the instrument -        -        -        -        -        -                  21

Method of data analysis -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  21

Decision rule        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

CHAPTER FOUR:               

Data Presentation And Analysis       -        -        -        -        -        -                  23

CHAPTER FIVE:        SUMMARY DISCUSSION, FINDING AND                                                              RECOMMENDATION

Re-statement of the problem-  -        -        -        -        -        -                  29

Summary of procedure -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  29

Major findings      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

Implication of the findings      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

Conclusion -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  31

Limitation of that study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  31

Recommendation of the study          -        -        -        -        -        -                  32

References  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

Appendix   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35


The study title “Improving the safety skills of students in the technical college workshop in Potiskum local government area of, Yobe state. To accomplish this study four (4) research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study was carried out in the technical college workshops and the research design adopted was descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of the 50 respondents made up of 40 SS 3 students, 5 technical teachers and 5 technicians in technical colleges, structured questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and the instrument was personally collected by the researchers. Means statistic was employed to analyze the data relating to the research questions. Based on the finding of the study the following recommendations were made, students should be more careful while working in the workshop. The technical teachers and technician should ensure that tools and equipment are adequately maintained in the workshops and new students in the school should be given workshop safety orientation before they start using the workshop tools and equipment in technical colleges in Potiskum, Yobe State.



Background of the Study

          Organized safety movement against unhealthy condition of workshop, long hour of abuse of the child, coupled with no compensation to injured students, abuse of educationally disadvantage person [no incentive of hard work had started by the middle of 19 century in Europe and in many cases severe opposition from the employer of labor.

          Legislation of workers compensation was led by Germany [1884] followed by the greatBritain [1897] and finally United States of America[1908-1947] and 20 century developing economic. Before this safety and health were violently controversial issue between the public and the employer. After sometime the employer begin to realize that it is better to prevent injuries than to pay workers compensation. This re-thinking set the atmosphere for development of safety and accident prevention. These idea where simply transferred to schools workshop and factories where serious supervision to ensure its practice is enforced.

It has been observed that a lot of accidents that occur in the workshops or industries are because of what Alake, (1998), referred to as lack of safety awareness among workers in both workshops and industrials. The workshop which is the back bone of any functional technical education, according to Simpson, (1998) is home of all kinds of materials, equipment, tools and machines that moves during the process. These pose a danger not only to such workers but also to materials, tools, machinery and installation. Therefore it has become of paramount importance that students should develop good safety consciousness.

Safety consciousness could be defined as the mental awareness of an individual which serve as a guide for his conduct behaviors and event actions to the end that he will be free from injury accident or danger Jadas, (2015). It could also mean mental or emotional guide for personal conduct working and living in highly mechanized world.

Alake, (1988) further stated that safety consciousness of hazard and danger in handling tools, equipment, and materials is necessary so as to avoid accident in workshop. Jadas, (2015) stressed that safety consciousness simply means awareness of hazard and alertness to danger. Is an unexpected event that occurs resulting to interruption of the completion of activity by Ajisafe etal (1997) who stressed that it is not necessary injury and death to person.Accident is caused by unsafe act of person, unsafe mechanical conditions and unsafe environmental condition or hazards and all students are prone to accident Jadas, (2015). They can however, be avoided with proper knowledge, skill, and positive safety attitude on the part of individual in the workshop.

Jain, (2008) categories causes of workshop accident as following:

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: this includes illumination noise, dust, non-ventilation, non cleanliness, temperature extremes etc.

MATERIAL FACTORS: these include broken safety guards, equipment failure, inadequate maintenance, poor distribution of safety signs faulty machine design, leaking values and lack of personal protective equipment

HUMAN FACTORS: it includes ignorance, age, taking chances; forgetfullness, alcoholism fatigue/boredom, careless and personal instability.

Accidents have serious effect upon the individual worker, equipment and product output. It cause a significant of loss of time to the establishment both man working hours and time to attend to the victim it causes loss of money to the injured especially if he become incapacitated. Jain, (2008) pointed out that accident affect the family of its victim causing an anxiety to members. It becomes worst if the accident is fatal and result to death of its victim, his skills is lost forever, his family is indirectly broken up, his place in the workshop may take some time or gears to be filled by another person in the society.

However, accident can be avoided by taking certain measures of safety precautions this is the concern of this investigation, to assess the extent to which safety is being carried out in the workshop of Technical colleges and the consciousness of their action regarding safety practices in the workshop. Onuoha (2001).

Sara (2004), stated that the ways of avoiding accident in the workshop is classified in three groups as follow:

Proper safety instruction which can be done by use of special classroom session, safety booklet posters, films safety contacts by safety specialists and safe working conditions. Developments of safety training to workshop instructor enable them carryout practical’s and impact safety education to the students.

Provision of safety devices and creation of safety work habit on the personalize basis promotion of students participation is safety; finally, a corrective action when safety rules and regulation are ignored.

All these efforts will, according to Jain, (2008) result in improved production stability, cost and quality, reduced cost in maintenance and material wastages absentees and medical bills:

It will also boost the students move above all skill according to oxford dictionary, (2009). Skills is the ability performed certain trade perfectly without mistakes. A skill is a learned capacity to carryout predetermined result often with the minimum out lay of the energy or both skill as a concept has been variously defined by various authors. According to Okorie, (2000), Skills improve when procedure and instruction are matched with performance activities.

This project will consider the students in the workshop of technical colleges with implication to safety skill to respective workshop, in additions to general safety laws in workshops. Consideration will be on the improvement safety standard in Nigeria and some aspect of factory act 1958 and 1990 upon which safety rule and regulation are based.

Generally, safety laws in workshop will also be considered with attending safety mode of dressing with emphasis on protection of body feet, face and the safety way of lifting heavy and long materials or equipment.

Detail safety and storage of hand tools the objective will also consider safety laws governing the handing of electrical part of machinery and installation.

Statement of the problem

Despite the enforcement of a safety laws in the school workshops as attended, to in a pre-study interview with one of the workshop instructors in technical college in Potiskum. It’s being investigated that students still do not abide by it situation Omuason (2001), stated that, carelessness of students contribute to accident in school workshops resulting to injures of various degree and damage to individual and equipment respectively.

According to Patishiko, (1998), Health and safety have value to every workshop, industrials, and organization be it a large or cottage one as long as it employs labour and it is expected to produce a healthy student or worker through satisfaction and wellbeing.

Provision of a good working environment, is obviously an important aspect of managements responsibility to its numerous students and employees. Developing skills and innovative it is necessary to prevent accident from happening to them that might result in a temporary or permanent (disability) reduction in output. Ayodele and Wilfred, (2001)

It then becomes a necessary issue of great importance to source for strategies of improving safety skill of students in the technical college workshop.

Lack of adequate knowledge and necessary skill by students in terms of safety practice becomes a problem. Safety consciousness and less prevention have been some of the major attributes as a result of our endowment by God of the various organs of perception. Sense of smell, sense of touch, sense of sight, sense of taste and sense of hearing. Along with all these sense is our highly developed brain, Odigure in Ayodele and Wilfred, (2001).

Management, as employers, is required by law as spelt out in the Nigeria factories act of 1990. These acts are meant to guide works/employers towards a hazard fr

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