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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    i

Declaration---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     ii

Approval------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      iii

Dedication---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------       iv

Acknowledgements--------------------------------------------------------------------------        v         

Table of Contents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------        vi

Abstract-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Background of the work--------------------------------------------------------------         1

1.1 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------                       1

1.2 Statement of the Problem----------------------------------------------------------            2

1.3 Aim and Objectives-----------------------------------------------------------------              3

1.4 Significance of the Project---------------------------------------------------------             3

1.5 Scope and Limitation---------------------------------------------------------------              4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------------------              5

2.1 Principle of Shelling Maize--------------------------------------------------------              8

2.1.1 The rotary impact principle------------------------------------------------------            8

2.1.2 Frictional contact principle------------------------------------------------------            8

2.2 Performance of maize sheller-----------------------------------------------------            8

2.3 Power requirement­­ -----------------------------------------------------------------            9

2.4 Working principle -------------------------------------------------------------------             9

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology---------------------------------------------------------------------------                       10

3.1 Design consideration---------------------------------------------------------------              10

3.2 The design of components parts--------------------------------------------------            11

3.2.1 Physical and engineering properties of the grains---------------------------          11

3.2.2 The shelling unit and shelling efficiency----------------------------------------          11

3.3.1 The transmission unit--------------------------------------------------------------           12

3.3.2 Design of shaft------------------------------------------------------------------------         12

3.3.3 Design of pulley ----------------------------------------------------------------------         12

3.3.4 Design of bearing --------------------------------------------------------------------         12

3.3.5 Design of hopper ---------------------------------------------------------------------        12

3.4 Cleaning Unit ------------------------------------------------------------------                     13

3.4.1 The frame ------------------------------------------------------------------                        13

3.4.2 The concave sieve ---------------------------------                                                    13

3.4.3 Design of blower Casing --------------------------------------------------------------      13

3.5 Material Selection ------------------------------------------------------------------              15

3.5.1 Construction and assembly of component parts -----------------------                 15

3.5.2 Performance test ------------------------------                                                        16

3.5.3 Maintenance------------------------------------------------------------------------            16

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------            17

4.1 Result----------------------------------------------------------------------------------              17

4.2 Discussion---------------------------------------------------------------------------                17

4.3 Cost analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------                19

4.3.1 Material cost----------------------------------------------------------------------               19

4.3.2 Direct labour cost-------------------------------------------------------------------                       21

4.3.3 Overhead cost---------------------------------------------------------------------              22

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and recommendation------------------------------------------------            23

5.1 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------               23

5.2 Recommendation-------------------------------------------------------------------              23

Reference---------------------------------------------------------------------------------               24

ABSTRACT

A motorized maize sheller’s blower housing was modified to increase its mobility and ease of maintenance. Operations such as welding, drilling, grinding, boring and cutting were carried out as lighter and more durable metal sheets with better finishing were used in the fabrication of this project. The machine was also tested for performance evaluation and was found to be optimal in its capacity.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE WORK

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Maize sheller is a machine which threshes out maize grains from its cob. It comprises a frame, hopper, beater teeth, blower, concave sieve, blower housing and a motor. It seperates the grains from the cobs at higher speed than manual beating.

This project work is on modification of a motorized maize shelling machine considering various important parameters.

Maize (Zea mays) is an important cereals crop which belongs to a grass family (Graminae) producing small edible seeds which was said to have originated from Mexico over the years (Iwena, 2002). It is the world’s best adapted crop, growing between latitudes 580N and 400S of the equator. The natural endowment of high rainfall, high light intensities, and favorable temperature in the cultivation of maize make it to be one of the world’s most versatile seed crops (Kay, 1987).

Maize production in Nigeria is of great importance with the increase in population and the use of maize grain, the market demand for maize also increased. However, maize shelling in developing and under-developed nations has been and remains a serious problem to its processing as it is tedious and often requires considerable labour hours (Abdullahi et al, 1979). In industrialized countries, maize is largely used as livestock feeds and as a raw material for industrial products, while in low income countries; it is mainly used for human consumption (Ndirika, 1995). In Sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food for an estimated 50% of the population (IITA, 1996). Maize is an important source of carbohydrate, protein, iron, vitamin B and minerals. In Africa, maize is consumed as a starchy base in wide variety of porridges and pastes. Green maize (fresh on the cob) is eaten parched, baked, roasted or boiled which play an important role in filling the huge gap after dry season (IITA, 1996).

Maize is a vital raw material in industry. Maize starch, maize oil, maize syrup and maize sugar are the chief industrial products obtained from maize. Maize starch is used for starching clothes. The starch is also employed in the manufacture of asbestos, ceramics, dykes, plastics, oil cloth and linoleum. Maize syrup is used in shoe polish, glassine paper and rayon in tobacco industries. Maize sugar finds their use in the manufacture of chemicals, leather preparation, dykes and explosives. The maize when cooked under acids produces furfural, a compound used in the production of adipontrile (nylon) in the restringing of diesel and lubricating oils. The stalks and leaves are sometimes used for making paper, paper board and wall board. Pulverized maize cobs are used extensively for removing carbon from airplane motors. (I.O. Adewumi, 2015).

Shelling of Maize

Shelling is the process of removing seed or grain from their respective cobs for both human and industrial use. Shelling is best attained when the moisture content is as low as 13% (ASHRAE, 1998). In the olden days and rural communities, primitive method of shelling maize included, beating with stick, crushing with mortar and pestle, hand shelling and therefore consumed much human energy and time (Sunghal and Thierstein, 1987).

Shelling is an indispensable process which is undertaken to maximize space and promote the easy handling of grains. Maize shelling, if done manually is one of the most labour consuming processes in maize post-harvest handling. The existing maize shellers are normally large and heavy, require high power input to operate and produce low product quality in term of percentage seed bre




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