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Sugarcane as it is widely known around the world is a tall perennial crop which produces an un-branched stem of 3 to 4 meters tall and more, it is botanically called saccharum species from the family of graminae. It is essentially grown in the tropics and subtropics, Sugarcane has an average cross sectional diameter of about 5cm. Some its species includes the saccharum beriberi, saccharum spontaomeum, saccharum sinruse, saccharum officinarium and saccharum robustum, of which the most predominant in Nigeria is the saccharum beriberi.
The crop requires conditions of high temperature of 28 to 48 degrees to complete its life cycle, ripening and have a high yield also high rainfall of about 1000m to 1800m. It performs optimally on clay soil with good drainage.
The crop is propagated vegetatively or through seedlings but in Nigeria it is propagated mostly vegetatively especially in the north, with assistance of compost and farmyard manure its yield is improved and is best when synthetic fertilizers are used mostly by large scale farmers.
Sugarcane is the most important source of sugar in the world apart from some few other sources like sugar beats(beta vulgris and terbaceousdicotyledon) and bracteolate flower which is mostly grown in the United States of America and other parts of Europe.
Sugarcane is also consumed locally by man and animals by compressive action of the upper and lower jaw to squeeze out juice into the stomach. Some sugar plants after juice extraction, the juice can be crystallized to be used as table or gramulated sugar or mixed with milk. During the manufacture, carbohydrates and oxygen in the proportions 1:2:1(CHO) is gotten, also the juice is used in manufacture of molasses which is a bye product essential in production of animal feed and can be converted to chemicals like ethyl, alcohol, carbondioxide, citric acid and bakers yeast which serve as juice drink to some people. Sugar cane is commonly known as the source for making granulated sugar for
daily consumption. Sugar cane also quiet tough to crush to extract the juice. This
plant is made up of strong fibre. It is also known for its toughness and shape which is
long straight plant like bamboo. Besides being the main ingredient for making sugar, it also extracts a healthy juice. Sugar cane juice is popular on Asia and India
subcontinent as it is a path for migration thousands of year back. The juice can be taken directly after crushing the sugar cane. In order to crush this hard sugar cane, it needs a very strong roller and force to crush it, hence squeeze the juice out of the plant. Crushing sugar cane and extracting the juice has been done since the early
days manually. As for now, people become less interest drinking this juice because it is difficult to find a clean and proper process in producing the juice. Mostly, sugar canejuice are sold on the road side, which is not very clean due to blowing dust and germs with wind. Sugar cane juice is best drink fresh and chilled. A clean
processing mechanism and proper disposing of its fibre is seen as an interesting option to upgrade the crusher machine in the market. The fibre of sugar plant after
extraction is called bagasse. Hence globaly bagasse the fibrous residue from crushed cane is used for various purposes and can also be burnt as fuel and to provide energy for various operations
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this project is to design and construct an enhanced sugarcane juice extractor machine.
i. To carry out design analysis of the sugar juice extractor
ii. To construct the sugar cane juice extractor
iii. To test the performance of the machinbe.
1.5 Statement of Problem
Recently the country has been under unsecure food source treats by book haram terrorist poisoning sugar products and other commodities as means of attacks, also the need for development of an enhanced own local technology on sugarcane juice extractors for small and middle scale farmers as substitute to imported juice extractor machines which is too expensive causing an increase in the cost of sugar products.
1.6 Scope of Study
This work is limited to the design and construction of an enhanced and efficient sugarcane juice extractor machine.
1.7 Significance of the Work
· This is an effort to construct an enhanced local sugar juice extractor machine.
· Development of a cheap and affordable extractor machine for small and medium scale farmers.
· Provision of employment for the unemployed Nigerians.
· This work strives to provide a source of income to individuals and organisations.
In this work procedures employed includes the background of study, machine design drawing and design calculations, material selection for various components, construction, assembling of component parts.
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