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The wood lathe machine is introduced to lessen the human suffering and to improve economical and technological standard, and for years now Nigeria recognized that she was economically and technological poor and has been economically dependents on the western world for survival in terms of technology. To dis-encourge this importation of technological equipment placed embarge on the importation of certain goods and this inspired our people to recognized indigenous technology though our fore father used axe, cutlass and some other sharp tools fro designing woods.
But, as time goes on, technologist introduced wood lathe machine, which comes in various designs and models as technology improves. Thus , the importance of wood lathe cannot be over emphasized. It is the acknowledgement of this fact that led to the design of wood lathe machine, even though this project of design and fabrication of wood lathe machine is a copied design, we tried to improve more on this machine so that it can design wood with little or no stress, utilizing the available material in order to reduced cost for production purposes and durability being of utmost important.
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this project are to:
i. Use available local materials in fabrication
ii. Achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine.
iii. Provide a life engine in the workshop which students could use for exhibition thereby creating awareness for, and encouragement of indigenous technology.
iv. Reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood design.
v. Increase productivity and creativity.
The vital need for the fabrication of a wood lathe is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand tools to carry out jobs. Moreover, the cost of importation of a lathe machine, is too high for an average user.
Also, wood lathe machine will helps to reduce the cost and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsman’s skill.
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Basically, along with stone, mud and animal parts, wood was certainly one if the first materials worked by primitive human-beings. Indeed, the development of wood lathe machine was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in design of a wood. Thus, it was acknowledge of these facts brought about the design of wood lathe.
The recent research indicates that wood turning may be about 3000years old, originating, presumably simultaneously in Great Britain, Italy and by inhabitants of Crimea.
In the good old days, there was much art and much less speed than we get today. Old spindle and bowl lathes used various sources of power, but often had low end speed of 75RPM. There were treadle models and pedal models with pedals designed to work as they did on the velocipedes wood lathes. Lathes come in a variety of sizes and styles, which tends to force the beginning turner to start out specialized in some manner, though the smallest lathes are “Jewelers lathes” which are small enough that they may be held on one hand. Although the work piece machined on a Jeweler’s lathes are metal, Jeweler’s lathes differ from all other working lathes in that the cutting tools are hand held, not fixed to a cross slides.
Lathe machine come in variety of models amongst which are bench lathes which can sit on a bench or table, CNC lathes that are controlled by a computer, vertical lathes i.e lathe with vertical axis. Also, there are some lathes that are equipped with indexing plates, profiled cutters, spiral or helical guide, etc. so as to enable ornamental turning.
Thus, the machine from its inception till date have under gone series of improvement, some parts have been simplified, modified or eliminated where found not absolutely necessary, hence different models exist in the market.
What remains indisputable in all model is the fact that the same principle of machining is employed.
The wood lathe, just like other types of lathe can be used to carry out a wide range of machining operations. It saves time and does not need much skill as in the use of hand tools.
1.3 DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Below are the dimensions and specifications as regards the fabricated wood lathe.
Total length of the machine 1680mm
Total height of the machine 1200mm
Width of machine bed 240mm
Angle of inclination of the tail stock 900
The electric motor RFM 2820RPM
The space between the bed rails
Diameter of headstock pulley 240mm
Headstock shaft diameter 38mm
Diameter of motor pulley 70mm
Width of tail stock (H-chanel) 200mm
v- Belt A-59
Maximum length of work 1100mm
Minimum length of work 300mm
Maximum diameter of work 300mm.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The continuous quest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has led to the establishment of factories and other industries, which necessitates an intermediate technology.
However, simple hand tools that were in use before are no longer efficient for mass production. In the same manner, the importation of wood lathe machine, as a substitute, for these tools, likewise has failed to meet man’s insatiable needs because of our unstable economy.
Then, there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood lathe machine.
1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY.
The design and fabrication of wood lathe machine aims among other things at justifying a simple way of scarping and cutting off wood at its best quantity at a minimum cost of labour, so that the financial burden of people can be reduced.
The simple design and fabrication of this machine, make it viable, reliable, and easy to carry out maintenance services at minimized cost.
1.6 SCOPE OF WORK
Essentially, the machine comprises of the frame made of metal, with the headstock fixed in position, the tail stock moves along the bed of the machine, and the toll rest mounted on a cross slide which can be moved both longitudinally and transversely on the bed. It is located between the head stock and the tailstock.
In operations, the machine is limited to only scarping and cutting of any type of wood. Drilling operations cannot be performed on this machine.
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