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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 5
Purpose of the study 7
Significance of the study 7
Research questions 8
Scope of the study 9
Limitation of the study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Instructional Material 10
Types and purpose of Instructional Materials in
the Education Program 21
Level of utilization of Instructional Material among Technical teachers 27
Availability of good and relevant instructional
materials in technical colleges. 31
Problems faced by teachers in the use of instructional
materials in teaching Automobile technology 36
Summary of the literature review 40
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 41
Area of the study 42
Population of the study 42
Instrument for data collection 42
Validation of the instrument 43
Reliability of the instrument 43
Method of data collection 44
Method of data analysis 45
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
Data presentation and analysis 47
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Re-statement of the problems 53
Summary of the procedures 53
Major findings 54
Discussion of the findings 54
Implications of the study 59
Suggestion for further study 61
This study sought to appraise of the utilization of instructional materials in teaching automobile technology in technical colleges, using five selected schools in Kano state as case study. The specific purposes of the study were to identify the availability of instructional materials for teaching automobile technology in Kano state, to find out the rate at which the teacher improvise for materials that are not available for teaching automobile technology, to find out how instructional materials are used for teaching automobile technology in technical and vocational colleges in Kano state, identify the state and functionality of the available instructional materials and Identify the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials. Five research questions were proposed to be answered by this study. The population sample for the study is 100 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kano state. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that instructional materials are adequately available in the technical colleges, the rate teachers improvise for the materials not available is high,most of the available instructional materials are in good state and functioning, and the level of utilization of instructional materials in teaching Automobile technology is low. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Background of the Study
Education is the bed-rock of any meaningful development. Unfortunately, the education sector in Nigeria has suffered from limited and stringent fiscal budgets and has been starved of both human and material resources (Ihejirika, 2013). The UNESCO recommended that 26 percent of the annual budget of every country in the world should go to education. Unfortunately, Nigeria is still far from this UNESCO recommendation. A’ Aeth (1975) and Coombs (1989) described the situation of African development as educational dilemma. During the colonial era, schools were significantly few which meant that fewer Africans had access to education which was deliberately designed to perpetuate hegemonic European dominance in the dual education system (Abraham, 2000; Chisaka & Mavundutse, 2006).
Learning is an activity that starts at birth and can be expected to continue for a lifetime in classrooms and training centres, effective learning takes place in a well organized way. Facilities and personnel are employed to provide an education designed for classroom learning, which aims to prepare all the students to work and participate in the society which they live.
Teaching at its most literal level educating, imparting knowledge is the most fundamental part of a teacher’s job. It is more obvious than (though just as important as) inspiring, motivating and forming relationships.
According to Adeyanju, (1997) the ability to teach is the concern of the trained teachers, but a complex process. Teaching can occur as a result of importation of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, new information e.t.c.
Caldwen (2004) observed that the most important thing in schools is to have a generation of well educated teachers who care deeply about students getting an excellent education in a subject. Teachers and the quality of teaching are the critical link to improving students achievements. He also view numerous improvement, component exist in schools and in states and local policies to ensure good teaching quality. These include teacher preparation, registration, professional development and evaluation. Some research conducted in these areas revealed that successfully increasing student’s literacy achievements requires creating and sustaining organizational structures in schools, such as focus on assessing and improving the teaching and learning.
Teaching makes acquisition of knowledge and skills possible through systematic interaction between teachers and learners. It happens everyday and involves teacher, learner, methodology and materials interaction. Part of these materials are known as educational technology.
The use of instructional Material in teaching process provide the basis for improved teaching and learning of a subject. They are designed, produced and use to achieve specific instructional goal. Alaku (1998) stated that teachers’ effectiveness depends on his use of appropriate educational technology and audiovisual aids. Appropriate instructional strategies portray good teaching techniques and successful learning. They assist students to enjoy and understand lessons easily especially when they are attached with appropriate methodology.
The introduction of Instructional Material in the teaching and learning process has made our educational system more attractive today. In whatever case learning comes to an individual through the use of sense organs. Which include sense of hearing, sight, test, feeling and smelling.
Instructional Material technology is the process or method of sending information or educational messages by the aids of modern gadgets to promote or make learning more easier. For any educational set up to attain its set goals and objectives such institution must rely or depend on the optimum utilization of the human and materials resources at its disposal.
Instructional Materials according to Dike (1989) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners, they add clearity to the topic and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning according to Njoku (1980) is the goal of education that learners should be able to retain what is taught. Instructional materials make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.
It is a believe that learning is best perceived when those senses are used together for example if what to be taught by the teacher can be hard, seen, and practiced by the learner the learning could be best perceived.
When we look at the present educational process and advancement in the field of technology one can suggest that in teaching specially Automobile Technology a teacher cannot avoid the use of instructional materials for better learning, it would be rather difficult for the teacher to manage this group of students without attracting the use of instructional materials.
Silvins and Carry (1986) pointed out that experimentation with the use of instructional material as educational medicines suggests the following
1. It is an important method for teaching and learning at all instructional levels including adult programmes
2. When used properly instructional materials provide motivation for students to assume more responsibilities for learning
3. The use of instructional materials improve instructional programme with more preparation and assistance from specialized personnel.
There are still teaching challenges found to be confronting the attainment of the required minimal standard and set goals of the government. The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Automobile Technology in Technical Colleges in Kano State is not different from what obtain in other subject areas and other parts of the country in general.
This study work is an attempt to look into the use of instructional material in teaching Automobile Technology in technical and vocational colleges in Kano state and their availability, the technical teacher attitudes toward the use of the instructional material. This state of condition is not new however a critical look into the problem of teaching Automobile Technology in both technical and vocational colleges in Kano state is of paramount importance.
Statement of the Problems
From the above, It is a clear indication that the application of Instructional Material for academic comprehension of Automobile Technology is very crucial. Ilalokhovi (1983) makes it clear that many schools and colleges were supplied with instructional materials, but whether these facilities have been used or not by the teacher is a question that the study will try to find out.
Mkpa (1988) stated that it is one thing for a teacher to be actively and effectively trained in the use of educational media, materials and equipments and another thing for him is to practice using some of these materials..
Alabi (1986) carried out a study on the problems and prospect of Vocation and Technical education in Kano state. He reported that lack of provision of training materials, functional laboratory and equipments is adversely affecting both students and teachers due to inadequate teaching materials.
Vessel M.E (1980) stated that only few Automobile teachers are aware or make maximum use of Instructional Material available to them. The availability of skilled trained manpower must be complemented with the necessary relevant equipment and facilities for maximum efficiency and functionality. But this is not the case in most of our technical and vocational colleges in Kano state. Therefore the need for this study an investigation of utilization of Instructional materials in teaching Automobile Technology in both technical and vocational colleges in kano state.
Purpose of the study
The study aims at investigating the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching automobile technology in technical colleges, Kano state specifically the study will:-
1. Identify the availability of instructional materials for teaching automobile technology in Kano state.
2. To find out the rate at which the teacher improvise to replace the materials that are not available for teaching automobile technology.
3. To find out how instructional materials are used for teaching automobile technology in technical and vocational colleges in Kano state.
4. Identify the state and functionality of the available instructional materials.
5. Identify the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials?
Significance of the study
The study will highlight the state of availability of instructional materials in teaching automobile technology at technical colleges in Kano state. This will keep the state ministry of education and the management of the institutions under study to know the rate at which the instructional materials are available in the state. The research will expose the rate at which the teachers in the school are able to improvise (to replace) the instructional materials that are not available. This will help the schools management and the ministry of education officials to support the efforts of the teacher by assessing the teachers periodically.
The finding of the study will also reveal the rate at which the teachers make use of instructional materials during teaching and learning process. This will also help the principals, ministry of education officials as well as the parents to see the rate at which the teachers are making effort toward effective teaching and learning by the students, finally the finding of the research will be of great value to other researchers in this area of specialization.
The research questions that this research seeks to answer are as follows:
1. How available are the instructional materials in technical colleges in Kano state?
2. At what rate do teachers improvise to replace the materials not available in technical colleges in Kano state?
3. What is the rate at which instructional materials are used in teaching automobile technology effectively in technical colleges in Kano state?
4. What is the state and functionality of the available instructional materials?
5. What is the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials?
Scope of the study
This study aims at assessing the level of utilization of instructional materials for teaching automobile technology in technical colleges in Kano state and also the judicious use or utilization of the instructional materials by the teacher and the level of improvisation (if any) of these instructional materials effectively in teaching of automobile technology in Kano state and it is carried out within Kano state in only five (5) selected schools.
Limitation of the study
The study was limited to five (5) technical colleges in Kano state and is on the utilization of automobile technology in government technical colleges certificate curriculum in:
1. Government technical colleges Bagauda, Bebeji Local Government Area
2. Government technical college Tega, Bebeji Local Government Area
3. Government technical college Ungogo, Ungogo Local Government Area
4. Government technical college Kano, Nassarawa Local Government Area
5. Government technical college Karaye , Bebeji Local Government Area
Also time and logistics constraints were also limitations to the study.
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