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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - -- - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Table of content - - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 3
Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - 4
Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 5
Research Questions - - - - - - - - 5
Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The Development of Safety Standard in Nigeria - - - 7
Measures to be taken to Reduce Accident in Technical workshop - 8
Type of accident that Commonly Occur in Technical workshop - 13
Strategies for Enforcement of Safety in Technical workshop - 14
Summary of review of Related Literature - - - - 16
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
Research design - - - - - - - - 18
Area of the study - - - - - - - - 18
Population - - - - - - - - - 19
Sample and sampling technique - - - - - - 19
Instrument for data collection - - - - - - 19
Validation of the instrument - - - - - - 21
Reliability of the instrument - - - - - - 21
Method of data collection - - - - - - - 21
Method for data analysis - - - - - - - 22
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and analysis of data - - 23
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Restatement of the Problem - - - - - - - 27
Summary of Procedure - - - - - - - 27
Major findings - - - - - - - - - 28
Implication of the Finding - - - - - - - 29
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 29
Recommendations - - - - - - - - 31
Suggestion for further Research - - - - - 32
Limitation of the Study - - - - - - - 32
References - - - - - - - - - 33
Strategies for improving the implementation of Safety Practices in Technical Workshop/Laboratory in Technical College Malali Kaduna was carried out using four research questions to guide the study. The study was carried out in a Technical College and the research design adopted was a descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of 42 respondents made up to 30 students of Technical College and 12 technical teachers including heads of department. While purposeful sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 30 students and 12 teachers including the head of department. A structure questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and the instrument was personally collected by the researchers and mean statistic was employed to analyze data relating to the research questions. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that: students should be more careful while working in Technical workshops. School Management should ensure that tools and equipment are adequately maintained in the workshop. of technical colleges New students should be giving safety orientation before they start using the Technical Workshop and equipment.
Background of the Study
It is an indisputable fact that where ever work is done with machine or hand tools there is likely had of accident occurring causing injuries to people, damages to machine, tools and materials in such a work place. Alake, (1998) . This accident may be caused by the workers act or omissions, in technical schools workshops/laboratory being equipped with a variety of tools and machine for teaching and learning process.
These schools full of young people with much hope need to be protected and prevented from engaging in acts capable of causing accidents. As a result, safety rules and regulation must be devised and enforced for their smooth interaction and operation. They should be encouraged in any way deemed feasible to observe these rules and regulations. This safe working habit if imbibed in Technical schools workshop would even help them to apply some in situation outside the School environment. As such, some of these rules and regulations have been carefully analyzed in this project as personal safety, safety at the bench, safety on machines and general Technical workshop safety which there is every believe that it would be of immense importance to Technical Schools personnel. Remember, it is better to be safe anywhere anytime than to be sorry as people would choose to sympathize with victims of accidents even when the victims are the cause of such accidents. Alake, (1998)
According to Sara (2004) accident is an unexpected event that occurs resulting to interruption of the completion of activity. Accidents have serious effect upon the individual worker equipment, materials and production output. It causes significant loss of time to the establishment, working hours and time to attend to the victim. Jain (2008) pointed out that accident effect the family of its victim causing on anxiety] to members. It became worst if the accident is fatal and result to death of its victim, his skills is lost forever, his family is indirectly broken up, and his place in the Technical workshop/laboratory may take some time or years To be filled by a substitute This increases a burden on the establishment where he worked and the society at large.
Onuash 2004 stated that safety consciousness includes attitude or industrial awareness of hazard and danger in handling tools, equipment and materials so as to avoid accident in Technical workshop.
However accident can be avoided by taking certain measures of safety precautions, the concern of this investigation is to assess the extent to which safety practices are being carried out by technical student in general Technical workshop/laboratory in Technical Colleges in Kaduna Inspectorate.
It has been observed that a lot of accident that occur in the workshops or industrial because of what Alake (1998), referred to as lack of safety awareness among workers in both work shops and industrials. The workshop which is the black bone of any functional technical education is according to simpson (1998) home of all kinds of materials, the workshop which is the back bone of any functional technical education is according to simpson (1998) home of all kinds of materials, equipment and tools and machines that move during the process. These pose a danger not only to stop workers but materials, tools machinery and installation it has became of paramount importance that students should develop good safety consciousness.
Safety consciousness could be defined as the mental awareness of an individual which serve as a guide for his conduct behaviors and event actions to the end that he will be free from injury accident or danger jodas, (2015). It could also mean mental or emotional guide for personal conduct working and living in highly mechanized world.
Alake, (1988) further stated that safety consciousness of hazard and danger in handling tools, equipment, and materials so as to avoid accident in workshop. Jadas, (2015) stressed that safety consciousness simply means awareness of hazard and alertness to danger. Is an unexpected event that occurs resulting to interruption of the completion of activity as coked by ajasafe etal (1997) stressed that it is not necessary injury and death to person. Accident are caused by unsafe act of person, unsafe mechanical conditions and unsafe environmental condition or hazards and all students are more accident jadas, (2015). They can however, be avoided with proper knowledge, skill, and positive safety attitude on the part of individual in the workshop.
Jain (2008) categories cause of workshop accident as following:
1. ENVIRONMENT FACTORS: this includes illumination noise, dust, non-ventilation, non cleanliness, temperature extremes etc.
2. MATERIAL FACTOR: these include broken safety guards, equipment failure, inadequate maintenance, poor distribution of safety signs faulty machine design, leaking values and lack of personal protective equipment
3. HUMAN FACTORS: it includes ignorance age taking chances, forget fullness, alcoholism fatigue/boredom, careless and personal instability.
Accidents have serious effect upon the individual worker, equipment and product out put. It cause a significant of loss of time to the establishment both man working hours and time to attend to the viction it causes loss of money to the injured especially if he become in capacitated. Jain (2008) pointed out that accident affect the family of its victim causing an anxiety to members. It becomes worst if the accident is fatal and result to death of its victim, his skills is lost forever, his family is indirectly broken up, his place in the workshop many take some time or gears to be filled by a society at large.
However, accident can bee avoided by taking certain measures of safety precaution this is concern of this investigation to assess the extent to which safety is being carried out in the workshop of education technical and the consciousness of their action regarding safety practice in the work shop.
Dnuoh (2001), sara (2004), and jain (2008). The ways of avoiding accident in the workshop is ways of avoiding accident in the workshop is classified in three groups follow:
Proper safety instruction which can be done by use of special class room session, safety booklet posters, films safety contact by safety specialist working conditions. Development safety training of workshop instruction enable them practical and impact safety education to the students.
Provision of safety devices and creation of safety work habit on the personalize basis promotion of student participation is safety, finally. A corrective action when safety rules and regulation are ignored.
All these efforts will according to join Jain (2008) result to improved production stability, cost and quality, reduced cost in maintenance and material wastages absentees and medical bills:
It will also boost the students move above all skill according to oxford dictionary (2009) is an ability performed certain trade perfectly without mistakes. A skill is a learned capacity to carryout predetermined result often with the minimum out lay of the energy or both skill as a concept has been variously defined by various authors. However, granten by and walefied (1993) defined skills as the expertly carryout an operation dextering and task.
According to Okorie (2000) skills improves when procedure instruction are matched with performance activities.
The project will consider the students in the department of education technical with implication to safety skill to respective workshop, in additions to general safety laws in workshops. Consideration will be on the improvement safety standard in Nigeria and some aspect of factory act 1958 and 1990 upon which safety rule and regulation are based.
Generally, safety laws in workshop will also be considered with attending safety mode of dressing with emphasis on protection of body feet and face the safety way of lefting heavy and long materials or equipment.
Detail safety and storage of hand tools the objective will also consider safety laws governing the handing of electrical part of machinery and installation.
Safety in handling and storage of inflammable fire out brake prevention detection and fire fighting equipment.
Statement of the Problem
The implementation of safety practice in workshop/laboratory in Technical Colleges in Kaduna Inspectorate is poor, considering the rate of awareness and knowledge of safety itself.
Despite the level of precautions taken there seem to be loop holes in the implementation of safety precaution in Technical workshop/laboratory.
Improper implementation of safety precaution in Technical workshops/laboratory can be very hazardous leading to even loss of life. Inadequate implementation of safety precaution causes damages to workshop/laboratory equipments and machines as well as cause Injury to persons.
Onuaha (2004) described carelessness of students as one of the common factors that contribute to accidents in the Technical workshop resulting to injuries of various degree and damages to individual’s equipment and tools.
Abdullahi (2004) conformed that lack of adequate maintenance do contribute to the causes of injuries in the Technical workshop.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is specifically to:
1. Investigate the causes of accident in the Technical workshop in Technical Colleges In Kaduna Inspectorate.
2. Examine the types of accidents and their frequency of occurrence in the Technical workshop/laboratory.
3. Identify the measures that could be taken to reduce the rate of accident in Technical workshop /laboratory
4. Ascertain the strategies to be adopted to improve student’s obedience to safety enforcement in the Technical workshop /laboratory.
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will be of immense benefit to the students of the Technical College to understand the importance of rules and regulations because it will assist them in the Technical workshop/laboratory. The students of Technical Colleges should obey safety rules and regulation in Technical workshop/laboratory that will reduce accidents. The Technical workshop/laboratory instructors would benefit from the study since there are strategies that could be adopted to improve safety enforcement in the Technical workshop/laboratory.
Educational researchers would also benefit from the study since it provides more researchable recommendations.
Student will benefit from this study, by providing guidelines for obeying rules and regulations in Technical workshop/laboratory.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. What are the causes of accident in Technical workshop/laboratory of Technical Colleges in Kaduna Inspectorate?
2. What is the nature of accident that frequently occurs in Technical workshop/laboratory of Technical Colleges in Kaduna Inspectorate?
3. How can accidents are reduced in Technical workshop/laboratory of Technical Colleges in Kaduna Inspectorate.
4. What are the strategies to be adopted in improving student’s obedience to safety enforcement in the Technical workshop/laboratory?
Scope of the Study
The study will be conducted in Technical College Malali Kaduna Inspectorate. It is limited to the safety practices in the Workshop/Laboratory of this College.
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