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In the past very little empirical research or project has been carried out to improve the effectiveness of student technical and practical know out. To enhance the motive towards technological advancement particularly with respect to motor industry and entrepreneurship. Student need to be sensitize and given a clerical vision to consolidate and enhance their skills. This project is set to equip the student with present day reality, on how the fuel supply system works and how it can be worked upon by student. This will help to give a meaniful and purposeful role in the national building of infrastructural development. This system consists of a fuel tank, connecting pipes, fuel pump, and carburetor.
The fuel tank is below the level of the engine fuel intake and is situated remote from the engine, a pump is used to raise and force the petrol up to the carburetor. Simple valves inside the pump only allow fuel to entre from the tank and release it to the carburetor. The pump is driven by an eccentric cam on the camshaft. Since its operation depends upon rotation of the camshaft the mechanical pump will only function when the engine camshaft rotates which is been powered by the electric motor with regulator.
The fuel system of an internal combustion engine is intended to produce a combustible mixture composed of the fuel stored in the fuel tank and atmospheric air and then deliver both to the cylinders. Petrol engine use light, grade gasoline diesel fuel, therefore fuel supply system and their differ greatly in petrol and diesel engine.
Fuel pump is used to supply petrol from the petrol tank to the carburetor. The fuel pump may be of mechanical or electrical type. If mechanical fuel pump is employed, it has to be placed on the engine since it is driven by the engine camshaft through an eccentric. However, the electrically operated fuel pump may be placed anywhere on the vehicle.
When the engine is cranked (started) vacuum is produced inside the cylinder. The atmospheric air rushes into the vacuum through the air cleaner, carburetor is the main device in this system, it vaporizes the petrol and mixed to with air in desired proportions depending upon the requirements of operating conditions. The charge (air + fuel mixture) now flows into the inlet valve open.It is ignited by spark that occurs due to an ignition system.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
This project is a replica of mechanical operated fuel supply system made by Mayback. In 1896, an automotive development that did not receive headlines but was later announced. Dr. Wilhelm Maybackand GuttliebDamiler of Germany had teamed up to build a motor car possessing a new device called a float – type spray – carburetor, agadget that still exist till today.
According to an 1898 issue of Automobile–Zeitung, a German automotive publication the Mayback carburetor was “a major improvement over the brush type atomizer and the wick carburetor”
It is line with this; we came about this project with the view to give mechanical automobile students the history of this system with a simple practical illustration and to transfer the engineering knowledge into practical skill which our country (Nigeria) as a developing nation is pursuing.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The atomizer was the carburetion device used on the first motor car equipped with a gasoline engine as fuel supply system, built by Siegfried Marcus in 1875. Between Marcus and Mayback, Dr F.W Lanchestera British automotive pioneer, built motor cars that used wick carburetors. It soon been out of used because the rotary – brush atomizer easily becomes wear and it has a very low efficiency output. Lanchester’s wick carburetor improved on the atomizer. It consisted of several compartments. The bottom compartment held fuel. This device also got discarded with time because the wicks extending from the compartment above become very or over saturated with fuel.
This system was robust in construction and very expensive to maintain.
As a result of the above failures this project is set up to demonstrate the efficiency of this system andthe prevention of fuel starvation under high Gravitational forces.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The objective of this project is to produce a demonstration prototype fuel supply system in other to enhance the learning process or to give a real practical insight to automobile engineering student. This project will also help the Department to reduce or reserve its fund which is meant for the importation of practical learning aids for the students.
This project will also enhance the motives towards technological advancement particularly with respect to motor industry and entrepreneurship.
1.4 SCOPE / LIMITATIONS
This project will be limited to the development of demonstration prototype of a mechanically operated fuel (petrol) supply system alone. It will show a consistent transparent flow of fuel supply from the fuel tank to the carburetor. By the aid of a camshaft, in which when it rotates, it moves the rod, which in turn pulls down the spring. A partial vacuum will be created and atmosphere pressure acting and surface of the petrol in the tank will forces the petrol up to the pumping chamber.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of developing a demonstration prototype mechanical operated fuel (petrol) supply system (unit) is to appreciate the technological advancement in the automobile industry and to appreciate the interconnectivity of various component part put together to serve a common purpose.
The principle used in this project can also be employed in other field of engineering which involves the rate of fuel and air mixture, the pressure, the speed in a device. This project work will also expand improve our knowledge on how to maintain and service a mechanical fuel (petrol) supply system when faulty and to detect the possible cause.
It also helps to understand the setting of different timming to avoid over compressed mixture which might poses danger to auto – ignition or behaving like a diesel engine.
1.6 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
This research work improves the skill and technical know our especially in the area of fuel supply system. Faults and their possible causes could easily be detected and rectified as a result of this research. It also helps to test and adjust each of these component part comprises in this system to enhance an effective performance.
In the same vein, it also help to know that if an appropriate quantity of fuel is been supplied, this will improved petrol consumption, reduced cylinder bore wear and reveals the danger pose if the supply of fuel is not consistent such as:
· Carbon monoxide a poisonous petrol
· Nitrogen oxide, the main source of urban smog
· Unburned hydrocarbons the main source of urban ozone these are Air pollution from cars and power plant which can affect the respiratory system that can lead to risk of lower cancer.
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