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1.1 ORIGIN, HISTORY OF CULTIVAT OF BANA (Musa nagensium).
Edible Musa spp. Originated in south eastern Asia from the India east and south to northern Australia.
Early Filipinos probably spread banana east word to the pacific Island, includes Hawaii, prior to recorded history. Westward, banana like followed the major trade routes that transported other fruits and it’s known to have arrived east Africa around 500 AD. Banana were met carried to Europe until the 10th century, and Portugal’s traders obtained it from wets Africa not Asia, during the age of discovery. Plants were taken from West Africa to the Canary Islands and South America in 10th century, and spread throughout the Caribbean with settlements of the area in the 16th – 17th centuries. Bananas are now grown patriotically more countries than any other fruits crop in the world.
1.2 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BANAMA (Musa nagensium)
Musa is the type of genus of the banana family (Musaccae), which contains 25 – 80 specie of banana and plantain. Both are important throughout the world for food, shelter, medicine and even clothing. In production, banana is the second largest fruit crop in the world, grown in warm tropical climate across the globe. Banana and plantain are often said to grow on trees, but actually it’s a pseudo stern (false stem). The fruit also develops without pollination, which means that banana and plantains are “Virgin” Fruits, and are technically berries.
Their evident importance bananas and plantains necessary world wide. Their leaves are used for plates, home made umbrella and thatching (roofing); the pseudostems are made into rafts and benches. The fibers obtains from the pseudostem are used for fishing line in west Africa and fibric in the Philippines. In India, some banana fiber is even made into paper. Ash of dried peels from both bananas and plantain is used for dyeing and making of soap.
Various parts of the banana plant are medicinal, and used to treat anything from dysentery to burns and insect bites. These plants also contain natural antibiotics and fungicides and are used as animal food and fertilizer.
1.3 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BANANA (Musa nagensium)
Besides its YUM factor, banana is a power house of nutrients. All its nutritional value and heat benefits are preserved in a natural way by its peel.
Banana is easily digestible and has many health benefits to other. Below is some of it nutritive benefits.
A single medium sized banana contains approximately 467mg of potassium and only a negligible 1mg of sodium. Potassium is important for regulating blood pressure and decreasing the risk of high blood pressure and it’s related conditions.
Rich in calcium, 100g banana capable of supplying the body with 5mg of calcium. Calcium is essential for the information, as well as upkeep of strong bone and teeth, and for the smooth functions neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction.
Banana are very high on energy, and are usually eaten. Other minerals are: Iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium and fluoride are all found in the banana. Each of these minerals help different body functions and boom the immune system.
Health benefits of banana are many: The help in controlling diarrhea and sooth an upset stomach. Their antacid effects protect the stomach against stomach ulcers and it’s related damages. According to a study published in the Archive of ophthalmology, eating a serving of banana daily may low risks of macular degeneration (ARMD). Being a rich source of the compound prebiotic, bananas help the body to produce vitamins and digestive enzymes, the absorb nutrients and Right against unfriendly micro organisms. The high magnesium content is used as quick-fix source of alleviation fatigue. Fiberin it helps to lower the cholesterol level in the body. A good level of vitamin Bb helps with brain functions.
DIETRY VALUE PER 100 GRAM OF BANANA (Musa nagensium)
Water % 15, Fat % 0.2
Calories % 88, Carbohydrate % 23
Protein % 1.2, Crude fiber % 2.6
1.4 PRODUCTS FROM BANANA (Musa nagensium)
Through the processing of bananas it is possible to obtain dried bananas also called banana “chips” banana pure as the basis for baby food or for during products, banana floor and powder, banana juice or even alcohol.
Apart from being a very important food product, banana product and by-products have other many different uses and applications.
- Animal feeding
- Banana paper
- Banana alcohol
- Banana puree
- Banana clips
- Banana flour
Banana fiber: This is used for handicraft and Art in baskets, carpets and so on. The fiber is also used for the manufacturing of banana puree.
Animal feed: Banana which to not arrive to fulfill quality requirements for export and banana may be used for animal feeding.
Banana leaves: They are used for wrapping food when cooking in many countries.
1.5 INDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS
Due to the seasonal and perishable nature of fruits they must be consumed within a short period of time or preserved for consumption over a longer period of time. To achieve this, it is important to kind the best way to process and preserve them so as to avoid wastage of the fruits during their peak period. Apart from this, a large proportion of these raw materials is wastage during canning, this poses economic problem to the country and cause several dispose and sanitary problems to the environment. Therefore, alternative methods of processing which will minimize wastage during caning and storage is necessary.
Moreso, the bulk of Nigeria diet is often different uncertain nutrients with the main meal usually very heavy learning little space for fruits which are eaten at separate time.
Balance diet need fruits to supply essentially nutrients. On the other hand, during the fruiting seasons as many are treated as waste. Therefore there is need to adopt processing or preservation procedure to make the fruits available through the year and in more convenient form and at the same time ensure a healthy and clean environment. This can be achieved by processing most fruits for jam making. Conservation of these fruits to jams and fellies would reduce the wastage and increase the country’s economy, since large ambitics of jam and fellics consumed in the country are imported. Anzionwa J.N (1978).
1.6 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1) Ascertaining the possibility of producing a good set jam without the combination of other fruits apart from banana (Musa nagensium).
2) Producing a good set without adding colourant or flavor
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