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Coagulation-Flocculation is an important process in water and wastewater treatment used for the removal of heavy metals, total suspended solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and turbidity. Most common coagulants are aluminum based salts and iron-based salts. Other coagulant includes polyacrylamide (PAA) and chitosan, a biodegradable, non-toxic linear cationic polymer of high molecular weight . However, previous researches have shown that chemicals used for water treatment causes serious health hazards especially when an error occurs during the treatment process. High level of aluminum sulphate in the brain has been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and as a causative agent in neurological diseases such Foreign exchange problem as pre-senile dementia. Other reports also suggest that alum may be carcinogenic in water application. There have also been concerns on the negative effects of the use and disposal of aluminum sulphate into the environment through the continuous usage of alum as a coagulant in water treatment. This is due to non-biodegradable nature of the sludge from the waterworks and high cost of disposal. The high cost of these chemicals has been found to contribute to about 35 to 70% of recurrent expenditure in water treatment plant. Researches on the use of natural coagulants such as Moringa stenopetala, Moringa oleifera, Hypoestis verticillaria and other plants as substitutes for domestic water treatment have been reported . Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds have been found effective in clarifying turbid raw water, an as a primary coagulant and flocculant as fast as that of Alum and in heavy metal ion removal. Treatment with Moringa seed powder can leave water clear with 90-99% of the bacteria removed. Plants usually are composed of lignin and cellulose as major constituents and may also include other polar functional groups of lignin, which includes alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic, phenolic and ether groups. These functional groups have ability to bind heavy metal by replacement of hydrogen ions for heavy metal ions in solution or by donation of an electron pair from these groups to form complexes with metal ions in solution. An analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate the involvement of hydroxyl ion (OH), alkane (-CH), nitrile (-NO2) and carboxyl group (-COO) chelates in metal binding. The potentials of calotropis procera leaves in purification of water and it ability to drastically reduced total viable count of microorganism have also been reported and its performance in coagulation and sludge conditioning capabilities have been reported to be similar to aluminum sulphate (alum) . Calotropis procera leaves were not only an active coagulant, but also showed antimicrobial effects on gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria. This can be attributed to the presence of some active ingredients such as mudarin, yellow bitter acids and calotropin in the leaves of Calotropis procera. Most of these compounds particularly calotropin have been reported to have antibacterial properties . Adequate potable water supply problems are still eminent particularly in developing countries because of inadequate financial resources. The cost of water treatment is increasing, and the quality of river water is not stable due to suspended and colloidal particle load caused by land development and high storm runoff during the rainy season. Due to many problems created by the use of synthetic coagulants such as aluminum sulphate enumerated earlier, there is therefore need for further studies on the application of non-chemicals, low-cost, preferably natural coagulants which are available locally. This study is therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of time, particle size and quantity of Calotropis procera leaves on its performance as a coagulant and antibacteria in the treatment of water from River Kaduna, Nigeria.


Water is an essential gift of life and serves as support to living thing. Contaminated water can be dangerous to the human causing so many health problems like water borne diseases e.g cholera, dysentery, typhoid etc. The main issues addressed include contamination, rust and corrosion, water ingression and water washout. This free white paper encompasses a full and detailed overview of what services Lubrication Engineers offer, including information about their product line and full service support, research and development, high performance additives and enhanced lubricants.


Objective of the present research is

1.To determine the  synthesis of polymeric inorganic coagulants and composite coagulants based on Al (III) and Fe (III) for water and wastewater treatment

2. To determine the use of Moringa Oleifera fruits as a coagulant for treating turbid water


Synthesized coagulants are characterized by different physiochemical methods. The proposed strategies for concept, which is not only avoid the formation of uncontrolled hydrolysis Al/Fe species frequently precipitate in coagulant but produce maximum content of particular hydroxyl Al/Fe species. By this way, we can maintain the formation of species those perform as optimum species. The monomeric species can form complex with metal ions to remove these ions, and polymeric species have more efficiency to remove turbidity by coagulation-flocculation respectively. These days, the composite coagulant a new concept has both characteristic of PACl and PFCl, is use in water treatment. In addition, extraction of coagulant active protein is an alternative coagulant use in water treatment


This research work may be useful in the area of coagulation/flocculation using chemical (synthesis) and natural (extract) coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The efficacies of the coagulants are evaluated for the purification of turbid water. Applications of these coagulants is not only restricted to the turbidity removal from the water but these are also investigated for their applicability for the disinfestations of water, removal of heavy metal, color or organic compounds and pH neutralization. In the present work, extraction and characterized of coagulant active compound from Moringa Oleifera was also investigated. Efficiency of coagulant active compound is optimized for turbidity removal.

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