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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The gradually growing requirement of energy and the limited resource of traditional energy sources has become a challenge for both developed and developing countries. For this reason, in policy makers’ agenda, energy efficiency and sustainability are given the first priority for any project to be installed. Solar street lighting system is an effective way to reduce power consumption and CO2 impact on the environment with the maintenance of the safety standards of the road. Electric street lighting consumes 114 Tera-Watts of power annually, leading to the emission of 69 million tons of CO2.
Solar energy is the most direct, common, and clean energy on our planet. Total solar energy absolved by the earth is about 3,850,000 Exa Joule (EJ) in one year, which is even twice as much all the renewable resources on earth found and used by human beings, including coal, oil, natural-gas, etc. the solar resources seem inexhaustible. Solar panel is a device made from semi-conductors’ materials which directly convert solar energy (SUN) into electric energy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Incandescent lamp has limited output illumination and cannot handle constant switching from ON and OFF (during day and night) which reduces the life cycle of these incandescent lamp, it also contains mercury which is toxic to humans.
Traditional street light totally depends on the national grid, which is usually affected by fault, short circuit and power outage. Thereby preventing constant power of the street light.
Each year, in the world, several trillion kWh are expended on street lighting. A high consumption means a high amount of generated energy, which in turn translates into a high level of noxious emissions. There are difficulties related to the maintenance of the system. The most Important is the problem relating to billing of the street lighting energy consumption.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
i. The Objective of the project is to install a self-control Solar street light, capable of switching ON and OFF at a specific period of time without human intervention.
ii. To achieve the practical experience of the theories being taught in the class.
iii. To install a solar street light to provide an efficient and compact source with high light output.
iv. To provide security extra security to the department by illuminating the car park.
The scope of this project work is to have 10hours electrification to illuminate the electrical department area unit by means of installing Solar street light which is powered by 12000mAh/40W battery. The battery is being charged using 6v solar panel. These are being incorporated together to produce a meaningfully result (battery and charge controller).
According to principle of photovoltaic effect which is creation of voltage and electric current in material upon exposure to light. the solar panels receive solar radiation during the day time and then convert it into electrical energy, which is finally stored in the battery. The Battery offer the energy to the Light emitting diode light(LED) to emits visible light. Battery discharges after certain time passes, the charge and discharge controller will act to end the discharging of the battery in order to prepare next charging or discharging again.
Figure 1.1: System Work Flow
1.5.1 Solar Panel
Solar panel is the source of power for the solar street light. It collects the solar energy from the Sun and converts it into DC power.
The luminary is the light that provides the requisite lighting. Earlier, Crystal Florence lamp (CFL) luminaries were quite prevalent. However, for the past 8 years, Light emitting diode (LED) luminaries have become more prevalent. Based on the lighting requirements, the size of the luminary has to be chosen.
1.5.3 Charge Controller
Charge Controllers regulate the charging and discharging of the battery. They regulate the incoming voltage to charge the battery and prevents the deep discharge of the battery. In a Solar street light, the circuit to switch ON and OFF the luminary is enclosed along with the charge controller.
1.5.4 Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR)
Automatically regulate the light source from full bright to dim mode according to the time of the day, prolong the working time of the light.
Battery stores the power generated by the solar panel. The type of battery used is 12000mAh lithium ion battery. In some cases, SMF batteries are also used as they are maintenance free and economical. The all in one street lights use Lithium Ion batteries. In terms of longer life, 12000mah rated tubular batteries are the best.
The all in one Solar Street Light can be fitted either on a pole or on a wall. In the traditional solar street, the luminary alone can be fitted either in a pole or a wall. The pole is either Galvanized iron type. And it is anti-corrosive.
1.6 REPORT OUTLINE
The entire project is basically divided into five chapters, with chapter one the introduction while chapter two gives the detailed literature review and chapter three describes Construction procedures. Chapter four present the testing and results of the project. The conclusion, recommendation is present in chapter five of the project.
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