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1.1 BACKGROUND OF REPORT
Motion detector is a two jointed word which are simply motion and detector, all these pairs of words have their respective meanings motion is the movement of part of the human body or continual change in physical position of anything.
Detector any electronic device used in detecting any object by means of sound or light signal.
Motion detector is an electronic sensitive device that send protective signal (either human being or object) to keep awareness to the people against instruments.
Motion creates security network in our homes, hospitals, military base and banks it enables them to detect or attend to people in need or emergencies at all times for instance in bank where maximum security is required the device can be installed in an unnoticeable strategic position (Connected to a dark place) so that intruders can be detected without the intruders being aware of it.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
For nowadays, we will switch OFF the light when we are going out from the office or sleep in the bedroom. However, some people might wake up during at night. When they wake up, their mental might not so clear and it is hard for them to find the switch to switch ON the light. Therefore, if they have a motion detection system to switch ON the light automatically, it is easier for them to avoid cannot find a switch and occur accident.
With this system, users do not have to turn ON the light or fan manually. Once users entered the room, light will turn ON and fan is depends on the temperature. It is convenient to the old people and some handicapped people who are sitting on the wheelchair. Besides that, kids will not fall down and get injure when they are go to toilet at night.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
i. To investigate the principle of the device.
ii. To investigate the factors that can affect the sensitively of the device.
iii. Improve the security network.
iv. To determine the reliability and maintainability to the system.
Procedures stated in the block diagram. Equipment and tools that are going to use in this project had chosen by study from the literature review through internet and advice from the supervisor.
Besides that, circuit is drawing in schematic diagram by using software Proteus 7 to stimulate the circuit. Then the circuit is constructed by using breadboard to testing the functioning of the circuit to ensure it can work well.
After testing on the breadboard, circuit is built by soldering those electronics component on the strip board or on PCB board. Final is testing the circuit to ensure it can function well. Below is the block diagram of the project.
A.C Power Supply Unit
D.C Supply Unit
Switching Relay Unit
Output Load Unit
Fig. 1.1: Block diagram of motion detector
Power unit is the source when a 220V enter through it will step it down so that the voltage component can withstand the voltage.
Passive infrared sensor whenever PIR sensor detect any body movement, its output pin becomes high which applies the triggering voltage to base and allow the current to pass through the resistor.
Switching relay unit is an electromagnetic is controlled by small current and used to switched ON and OFF relatively.
Output load unit the relay gets energizes and create electromagnetic field which attracts the lever and come and ON get connected this allows a much larger current (220V) A.C to flow which turns ON the bulb. We on increase or decrease the bulb On duration by setting up PIR sensor.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project is constructed as a motion detector using passive infrared sensor to be used in our homes and offices to tackle security challenges.
1.6 REPORT OUTLINE
The content of this project report is about Motion Detector using Passive Infrared Sensor. This report is consists of five chapters.
In the chapter one, the project overview which are the introduction, objective, scope of project, problem statement and project methodology. Chapter two is embracing the literature review of the Passive Infrared Sensor with review of some related work. Chapter three is about the construction and packaging of the circuit. Chapter four discuss about testing and result of project. This chapter also will include the final product of the project and describe function of the project in diagram. Chapter five covers the conclusion and recommendation of the whole project.
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