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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF REPORT

            Motion detector is a two jointed word which are simply motion and detector, all these      pairs of words have their respective meanings motion is the movement of part of the           human body or continual change in physical position of anything.

            Detector any electronic device used in detecting any object by means of sound or light      signal.

            Motion detector is an electronic sensitive device that send protective signal (either human             being or object) to keep awareness to the people against instruments.

            Motion creates security network in our homes, hospitals, military base and banks it            enables them to detect or attend to people in need or emergencies at all times for instance           in bank where maximum security is required the device can be installed in an unnoticeable strategic position (Connected to a dark place) so that intruders can be           detected without the intruders being aware of it.

1.2       PROBLEM STATEMENT

            For nowadays, we will switch OFF the light when we are going out from the office or      sleep in the bedroom. However, some people might wake up during at night. When they          wake up, their mental might not so clear and it is hard for them to find the switch to       switch ON the light. Therefore, if they have a motion detection system to switch ON the    light automatically, it is easier for them to avoid cannot find a switch and occur accident. 

            With this system, users do not have to turn ON the light or fan manually. Once users         entered the room, light will turn ON and fan is depends on the temperature. It is           convenient to the old people and some handicapped people who are sitting on the       wheelchair. Besides that, kids will not fall down and get injure when they are go to toilet         at night.

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

            i.          To investigate the principle of the device.

            ii.         To investigate the factors that can affect the sensitively of the device.

            iii.        Improve the security network.

            iv.        To determine the reliability and maintainability to the system.

1.4       METHODOLOGY

            Procedures stated in the block diagram. Equipment and tools that are going to use in this project had chosen by study from the literature review through internet and advice from          the supervisor. 

            Besides that, circuit is drawing in schematic diagram by using software Proteus 7 to          stimulate the circuit. Then the circuit is constructed by using breadboard to testing the    functioning of the circuit to ensure it can work well.

            After testing on the breadboard, circuit is built by soldering those electronics component   on the strip board or on PCB board. Final is testing the circuit to ensure it can function             well. Below is the block diagram of the project.

A.C Power Supply Unit

D.C Supply Unit

PIR

Sensor

Switching Relay Unit

Output Load Unit

Fig. 1.1: Block diagram of motion detector

            Power unit is the source when a 220V enter through it will step it down so that the            voltage component can withstand the voltage.

            Passive infrared sensor whenever PIR sensor detect any body movement, its output pin     becomes high which applies the triggering voltage to base and allow the current to pass        through the resistor.

            Switching relay unit is an electromagnetic is controlled by small current and used to          switched ON and OFF relatively.

            Output load unit the relay gets energizes and create electromagnetic field which attracts    the lever and come and ON get connected this allows a much larger current (220V) A.C             to flow which turns ON the bulb. We on increase or decrease the bulb On duration by    setting up PIR sensor.

1.5       SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

            This project is constructed as a motion detector using passive infrared sensor to be used    in our homes and offices to tackle security challenges.

1.6       REPORT OUTLINE

            The content of this project report is about Motion Detector using Passive Infrared Sensor.             This report is consists of five chapters.

            In the chapter one, the project overview which are the introduction, objective, scope of     project, problem statement and project methodology. Chapter two is embracing the            literature review of the Passive Infrared Sensor with review of some related work. Chapter three is about the construction and packaging of the circuit. Chapter four discuss           about testing and result of project. This chapter also will include the final product of the          project and describe function of the project in diagram. Chapter five covers the        conclusion and recommendation of the whole project.


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