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A microcontroller-based Versatile Traffic Light Control System/Trainer has been designed and implemented in the course of this project. The system can control traffic lights in all types of y- and cross-junctions. Two major aspects of the system are the hardware subsystem and the software subsystem. Each subsystem was first broken down into simpler parts or modules and each module was designed from first principles to get the required functional behavior. The entire system was then integrated into one functional unit and tested using a carefully laid-down test plan. The versatility of the system was made possible by the use of a microcontroller which enabled the researcher to use software to achieve a versatile, flexible and cost-effective solution. The system can double up as a training kit for undergraduates that are interested in learning traffic light control system design and operation.
Most roads in Nigeria urban areas are usually congested, some all-day, others during rush hours. It was found that larger part of this problem is that due to congestion at road intersections. However, traffic light systems have long been invented to control this problem. Most of these traffic light control systems are imported thereby making them expensive. Traditional traffic light control systems are designed to function at only a particular type of traffic intersection. For example, a control system that was designed for a cross-junction may not serve at T-junction.
This project work deals with a microcontroller-based traffic light control system that has the ability to control any type of y- and cross-traffic intersections. It is indigenous as well as versatile in its control functions as regards y- and cross-junctions. This has the effect of drastically reducing the design cost.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
This project aims at developing an 8051 microcontroller-based versatile y- and cross- traffic light control system which can be deployed at road
intersections for traffic control. It can be used as a teaching aid in schools for various road users. The purpose of this project work is to develop a versatile system that can control any type of cross- and y-traffic junctions to assist and to educate the general public on automobile-automobile and automobile-pedestal interactions at road intersections.
Since this work is indigenous, it can serve to replace the imported ones. It can also reduce the cost of design and implementation since addition of few instruction lines to the control program will make the control system function at any type of road intersection. The software program for this system can be modified to incorporate more functionality. This system/trainer also serves as a learning aid.
1.4 Scope of the Work
This versatile traffic light control system is intended to control a wide range of y- and cross- road intersections. In this work, we limit ourselves to the control of the following types of traffic junctions:
Automobile-automobile cross-junction Automobile pedestrian cross-junction
Automobile-automobile Y-junction using LEDs
Automobile-automobile Y-junction using lamps via dc relays
This project work is flexible in that the control program can be modified to incorporate other types of traffic junction control.
1.5 Block Diagram Overview
Fig. 1: Block Diagram Overview
As indicated in Fig. 1 above, the input subsystem comprises a switch panel that passes input signals to the control system which in turn invokes control algorithm from the system’s memory for its control operations. The input signal is used to configure the system to behave as a particular type of traffic junction controller. The user can select one out of
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