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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Definition

The Cleome viscosa Linn is commonly known as Asian spider flower or yellow spider flower. It belongs to Capperaceae family.C.viscosa is a weed distributed throughout the tropics of the world and the plains of india. It is known as Asian spider flower in English, Namijin `yaranguwa in Hausa, Hurhur in India, Hurhuria in Bengali, Nayikkadugan in Tamil (Asolkaret, al. 1992).Traditionally, this plant is used in various disorders such as diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, liver diseases, bronchitis, skin diseases, and malarial fever (Henty and Pritchard, 1975). The juice is useful in piles, lumbago and earache. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-diarrhoeal activities of the extract have been reported by researchers, it was noted that the fresh leaves of C.viscosa are widely used as medicine for Jaundice.

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Taxonomical profile

Kingdom:  Plantea

Phylum:           Tracheophyta

Class:                     Magnoliopsida

Order:                   Capparales

Family:                 Capparaceae

Genus:                   Cleome

Specie:                   Viscosa

(UNEP-WCMC 2011)

Brief description of the plant

Cleome viscosa belonging to the family Capparaceae (Narayanaet, al., 2003). It is an annual sticky herb with strong penetrating odor. The plant is clothed with glandular and simple hairs (Rukmini, 1978). It is a widely distributed herbaceous plant with yellow flowers and long slender pods containing seeds, which is similar to that of mustard. C.viscosa, also called “Dog mustard”, is a herb that

grow up to 1m height in India (Parimalaet, al., 2004). Cleome is a large genus included in the Capparaceae family, which comprises 427 species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Brummit, 1992). The native of the plant is Africa and S. Arabia to Australia.The leaves are diaphoretic, rubefacient and vesicant. They are used as an external application to wounds and ulcers. The juice of the leaves has been used to relieve earache. The seeds are anthelmintic, carminative, rubefacient and vesicant. The seeds of C.viscosa are used to treat fever, diarrhea, and infantile convulsion (Rashmi, et al., 2012). C.viscosa is a popular remedy for a variety of ailments as documented in Ethno-botanical surveys and traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani (Raghavan, 1993).

1.1 Importance of phytochemicals

The defuttered extract were tested for the presence of different secondary plant metabolites. Basic phytochemical screening consist of performing simple chemical test to detect the presence of alkanoids (Herbone, 1973),Tanins (Herbone, 1998) and saponid and cardial glycoside.

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Observation of antibacterial activity may be due to the presence of potent phytochemical constituents in the extracts. The data obtained in the present work will be useful in the synthesis of new drugs of pharmaceutical importance. Phytochemical analysis or screening can be useful to substantiate and authenticate drugs e.gpharmacognostic

1.2 Statement of the problem

The chemical pollution of soil has become a major source of concern and has posed serious health problem within the last few years in many developed and developing nations (Ahmadpouret, al., 2010). The effect of heavy metal on plant resulted inhibition, structural damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities, as well as of the function of the plant (Oancea, 2005). As a weed, C.viscosais found in abundance within the University premises including students hostels and staff quarters, road-site, University mini market and other areas. The plant is increasingly dominating agricultural lands and hence pose danger to other plant species.

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1.3 Justification

This plant specie is considered as a weed. Phytochemicals are generally used as a essential nutrient responsible for the protection and carrying of many health situation, including fever, diarrhea, infantile convulsion, ulcer and earache e.t.c. Hence it is important to determine the specie chemical compositions present in the leaf, pod and roots.

1.4 Aim of the study

The aim of the study is to determine and identify some phytochemicals present in the leaf, root and pods of C. viscosa.

1.5 objectives of the study

This study have the following objectives;

1.    To determine phytochemicals presence in the root, leaves and pods of C. viscosa.

2.     To evaluate the difference concentrations of the secondary metabolites in the root, leaves and pods of C. viscosa.





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