ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN WILD AND FARMED AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) IN SELECTED RIVERS AND FISHFARMS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN WILD AND FARMED AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) IN SELECTED RIVERS AND FISHFARMS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

  • The Complete Research Material is averagely 52 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
  • Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
  • Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
  • Full Access Fee: ₦4,000

Get the complete project » Instant Download Active

ABSTRACT

The presence and bioaccumulation pattern of some heavy metal concentrations in wild and

farmed African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) muscles collected from selected

rivers and fish farms in Kaduna State, Nigeria, were assessed. Fish and water samples used for

the assessment were collected during the wet and dry seasons from River Kaduna, River

Galma in Zaria; and from two fish farms in Sabon Tasha, Kaduna and Dakace, Zaria. Physico-

chemical parameters, such as Puissance Hydrogen (pH), temperature, Turbidity etc., were also

analysed. The analyses of heavy metals, Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and

Mercury (Hg), in all water and Clarias gariepinus muscle samples was carried out in the

Multi-User Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello

University, Zaria, using Thermo-element Solar S4 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

(AAS), while the Varian Generation Accessory (VGA 77) with closed end cell was used for

Hg determination. The results obtained were subjected to t-test analysis to determine the level

of significance (p < 0.05) between the means, while Pearson correlation coefficient was

employed to determine the relationships. pH was highest in River Kaduna during the wet

season, in the upstream (7.04), while there was a dip in the downstream (6.67) during the dry

season. Seasonal variations in temperature were evident, as the ranges obtained in the rivers

were from 27.03°C – 30.68°C and the farms ranged from 23.76°C – 27.42°C, which were

within World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold (30°C – 36°C). Dissolved

Oxygen (DO) varied widely in the rivers (5.11mg/l – 7.04mg/l) as well as in the farms

(9.29mg/l – 10.74mg/l). Total dissolved solids (TDS)obtained in this study were all very high

(Rivers: 54.91mg/l – 82.09mg/l, Farms: 28.43mg/l – 42.03mg/l), but were all lower than the

WHO standardindicativeofportability (1000 – 1600mg/l). Heavy metal concentrations in

water samples and heavy metal bio-accumulation in both wild and farmed C. gariepinus

muscles showed irregular distributions with descending order of:Fe >Pb>Hg>Ni > Cd. Fe

vii


levels were the highest in both rivers water samples (3.23mg/l), closely followed by Pb (0.78)

and Hg (0.69mg/l), while the farms also had Fe as the dominant element (1.31mg/l), with Pb

(0.26mg/l) and Hg (0.09mg/l), respectively. Both water bodies had Ni concentration (0.2mg/l)

higher than the WHO limits of 0.02mg/l, while the farms‟ concentration (0.03mg/l) was

slightly higher than WHO threshold limit. In the muscle of C. gariepinus, Fe concentrations

were also high in rivers (3.53mg/kg), while the Farms was 1.44mg/kg, all above the FAO

recommended limit (0.5mg/kg) in fish. Generally, only Cd didnot exceed the maximum

permissible limits in the tissues ofC. gariepinus. However, with Fe, Hg, Pb and Ni all higher

than the acceptable limits, most especially in the rivers, this could pose a serioushealth risk to

consumers. Thus, a close periodical and regular monitoring of heavy metal pollution in the

water bodies is strongly advocated.

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

In recent years the concentrations of toxic metals in many ecosystems are reaching

unprecedented levels. The increasing use of metals in industry and mining activities have led

to serious environmental pollution through effluents and emanations (Güven et al., 1999).

Under certain environmental conditions, heavy metals may accumulate and cause serious

ecological damage. The aquatic ecosystem is often seen as the ultimate recipient of almost

everything including heavy metals (Ogoyi et al., 2011). Pollution of heavy metals in aquatic

environment is a growing problem worldwide and currently it has reached an alarming rate.

There are various sources of heavy metals; some originates from anthropogenic activities like

draining of sewage, dumping of hospital wastes and recreational activities. Conversely,

metals also occur in small amounts naturally and may enter into aquatic system through

leaching of rocks, airborne dust, forest fires and vegetation (Fernandez and Olalla, 2000). As

heavy metals cannot be degraded, they are continuously being deposited and incorporated in

water, sediment and aquatic organisms (Linnik and Zubenko, 2000), thus causing heavy

metal pollution in water bodies.

Heavy metal is any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or

poisonous at low concentrations (Ngumbu, 2014). Examples of heavy metal include mercury,

cadmium, arsenic chromium, thallium and lead. As trace elements, some heavy metals (e.g.

copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) are essential to maintain the metabolism of the

human body. However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning (Lenntech, 2014).

Heavy metals can enter the human food through water, air, soil, plants and animals. The

pollution of the environment by heavy metals is viewed as an international problem because

1


of its effects. In recent years, the pollution of aquatic environment with heavy metals has

become a worldwide problem because of their potential toxic effect and also most of them

accumulate in tissues and organs of aquatic organism (Goldstein and Hewitt,

1990andGledhill et al., 1997). However, the amount of absorption and bioaccumulation of


You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply





Share a Comment


You can find more project topics easily, just search

Quick Project Topic Search