MACROPHYTE DISTRIBUTION IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN SELECTED PONDS ALONG IKOT AKPADEM ACCESS ROAD, AKWA IBOM STATE

MACROPHYTE DISTRIBUTION IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN SELECTED PONDS ALONG IKOT AKPADEM ACCESS ROAD, AKWA IBOM STATE

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ABSTRACT

Macrophyte distribution in relation to water quality parameters in roadside ponds was studied in a seasonal wetland at Mkpat EninLocal Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Systematic sampling method was used in sampling the vegetation using a quadrant of 5mx5m space at regular intervals. The vegetation  parameters such as density and frequency were determined. Water sample was also collected at different point in the pond and their physiochemical characteristic were analysed. Ten (10) flora species belonging to 10 families were recorded. Cryptosperma senegalense was the species with the highest richness with density value of (9500±150.63st/ha) and this followed by Nymphea lotus (6000±138.36st/ha). The least density value was associated with Alchornea cordifolia (300±43.54st/ha). Crypstosperma senegalense also had the highest frequency (100%) while the least frequency value of 25% was associated with species such as Alchornea cordifolia, Heteranthera cordifolia, Lygodium sp. and physalis angulata respectively. This study shows that water properties have substantial effect on the distribution of macrophyte species and that the density of each species correlated positively or negatively with water parameters. The study provides a baseline information towards the monitoring and management of ponds and other wetland ecosystems within the State.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page       …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        i

Dedication     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        ii

Certification  …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        iii

Acknowledgments   …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        iv

Abstract         …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        v

Table of Contents     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        vi

List of Tables            …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        x

List of Figures           …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        xi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0             Introduction  …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        1

1.1       Background of the Study    …        …        …        …        …        …        1

1.2       Statement of Research Problem     …        …        …        …        …        8

1.3       Aim of the Study      …        …        …        …        …        …        …        8

1.4       Objectives of the Study       …        …        …        …        …        …        8

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        9

2.1       Aquatic macrophyetes        …        …        …        …        …        …        11

2.2       Emergent Macrophytes       …        …        …        …        …        …        11

2.3       Free-floating macraphytes  …        …        …        …        …        …        12

2.4       Submerged macrophytes     …        …        …        …        …        …        12

2.5       Impact of Aquatic Macrophytes on their Environment             …        13

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Study Area    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        16

3.2       Vegetation Sampling and Collection of Water Samples            …        …        16

3.3       Quantitative Determination of Vegetation Parameters  …        …        17

3.3.1   Density          …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        17

3.3.2   Frequency     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        17

3.4       Analysis of the Water Samples      …        …        …        …        …        17

3.4.1   Conductivity Determination          …        …        …        …        …        18

3.4.2   Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Determination      …        …        …        18

3.4.3   Temperature Determination           …        …        …        …        …        18

3.4.4   Phosphate Determination   …        …        …        …        …        …        19

3.4.5   Nitrate Determination         …        …        …        …        …        …        19

3.4.6   Total Suspended Solids Determination    …        …        …        …        20

3.4.7   pH Determination    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        20

3.4.8   Determination of Dissolved Oxygen (DO)          …        …        …        20

3.4.9   Determination of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)   …        …        20

3.4.10 Salinity          …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        21

3.4.11 Turbidity       …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        21

3.4.12 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)            …        …        …        …        22

3.4.13 Alkalinity Determination    …        …        …        …        …        …        23

3.4.14 Chloride Determination      …        …        …        …        …        …        23

3.5       Statistical Analysis  …        …        …        …        …        …        …        24

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.1       Results           …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        25

4.1.1   Vegetation Characteristics of the Pond    …        …        …        …        25

4.1.2   Physicochemical Characteristics of Water          …        …        …        27

CHAPTER FIVE:               DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Discussion     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        36

5.2       Conclusion    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        39

5.3       Recommendation     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        40

REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Vegetation Characteristics of the ponds        …        …        …        26

Table 4.2: Physicochemical Characteristics within the ponds …        …        29


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1          Regression of density of Nymphaea lotus with pH         …        20

Figure 2          Regression of density of Nymphaea lotus with BOD     …        31

Figure 3          Regression of density of Nymphaea lotus with DO        …        31

Figure 4          Regression of density of Nymphaea lotus with phosphates -   32

Figure 5          Regression of density of Nymphaea lotus with nitrates   …     32

Figure 6          Regression of density of Cryptosperma senegalense with               pH           …        …        …            …        …  &nb




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