The aim of this research work is to discover how maintenance of
buildings and infrastructures can be effected, effectively to help
increase the workers output thus increasing labour efficiency and
increasing the income of the nation leading to increased income per
capita of the populace.
The objectives of this research work are as follows:
(a) Have a proper look at the level of maintenance attention that
buildings and infrastructures within Nigeria receive.
(b) Now the current building and infrastructural maintenance practice
with a view to improve on them.
(c) To pin-point the various difficulties and problems that hamper the
efficient execution of an effective maintenance management on buildings
and infrastructure in Nigeria.
(d) To examine the causes that lead to the deterioration and
dilapidations of buildings and infrastructures.
(e) To proffer solutions to the menace of lack of maintenance of
buildings and infrastructures within Nigeria.
In emphasis, this project will show the need for proper maintenance
schemes for buildings and infrastructures, that will help reduce
maintenance cost, minimize loss of use, improve safety conditions,
improve aesthetic values and improve appearance of buildings thereby
reduces the cases of collapse of structures and the inherent dangers to
life and investment.
1.1 Background of the study
Over the years, there has been increasing abandonment of building
projects and infrastructural facilities which has led to the
dilapidation, degradation and deterioration of these building structures
within the Nigerian contemporary urban metropolis.
Recently there has been a lot of research investigations and analysis of
which points unshakeable to the fact that certain features such as
client’s perception, cost of maintenance works, unskilled maintenance
technicians, inflation rates, effect of taxation on building owners,
Government policies, inability to prepare and follow maintenance
schedules are direct causes of neglect which leads to dilapidations and
deterioration of building structures (onibokun 1997). There are also the
remote causes of lack maintenance such as force majeur, cultural
problems, state of the economy, the receding global economic meltdown,
lack of time and general illiteracy of the occupants of the building or
structure and users of the facilities.
However there has also been growth in the significance of building
maintenance as a proportion of the output of the construction industry
which takes place against a backdrop of mounting pressure on new build
activity and a growing awareness of the need to manage the condition of
the nation’s building and infrastructure more effectively (chanter
Though, it is still the case that such maintenance activity takes place
in a context that does not create a fully integrated approach to
managing building performance and thus the full potential of many
buildings and infrastructures are never wholly realized.
Basically in virtually all the towns and city centers within the
Nigerian, buildings and infrastructural facilities are gradually and
systematically decaying, dilapidating and deteriorating with reduced or
no degree of maintenance programme and activity.
From a normal visual perception in the urban metropolis, it can be noted
that majority of the
(a) constructed buildings both private and public
(b) road network
(c) water supply systems
(d) sanitary and drainage systems
(e) transmission poles and electricity lines
(f) government owned telephone networks
(g) telegraph and postal systems
(h) sign post and route location posts
are deteriorated and badly in need of maintenance. The lack of
maintenance of these buildings and infrastructures negatively affects
the populace which thus affects the output of the working class,
capacity of the populace is thus lost, time value for achievement of
goals and objectives minimized , it also causes all forms of ill-health
and psychological effects thereby reducing the economic growth of the
1.2 Statement of the problem
All three spheres of government, together with the state owned
enterprise (SOEs), manage major portfolios of immovable infrastructural
assets. While there is much emphasis on delivery of infrastructure,
delivery does not in fact end with the commissioning of the
infrastructural asset. Once the infrastructure has been commissioned,
various activities must be carried out which are necessary to ensure
that it continues to perform- such as the allocation of necessary
budgets and the retention of appropriate staff to maintain the operation
of the assets.
“Delivery” needs to be universally understood as embracing not just
constructing the infrastructure, but the appropriate operation and
maintenance thereafter for the whole design life of the asset.
There are so many problems associated with the maintenance of buildings
and infrastructural facilities on the economy. One of the serious
problems if finance; government financing as regards to maintenance of
buildings (both public and private) is minimal. The grant towards
maintenance of infrastructural facilities is on its lowest ebb. Most
buildings and infrastructures have been neglected by subsequent tenures
of government while the private sectors; the individual property owners
have little or nothing to contribute towards effective maintenance of
their buildings, so long as the buildings affords the owner annual
income he could not care less for the maintenance and so long the
interior of the building is conducive for the occupants they could not
care for outward appearance or other necessary maintenance activity.
Another problem to effective maintenance of the built environment in
Nigeria is corruption. Certain governments which have the welfare of the
populace at heart will foster a well finance programme to cater for the
maintenance of certain facilities such as road networks bore hole
systems, bridge construction, elevation of the power grid for
alleviation of suffering and eventual welfare of the populace but
certain corrupted officials will channel these funds for personal
aggrandizement. Another serious impediment to maintenance in Nigeria is
the state of the economy, according to the united research on
profitability index as regards to income per capita of nations of the
world; Nigeria is rated as fifth poorest country (UN 2010), which
implies that the average Nigerian lives below one dollar per day. As a
result of this economic hardship residents and citizens has little or
nothing to contribute in terms of effective maintenance of their abode
thus leading to neglected effects visualized in our cities and
Also certain buildings in Nigerian cities were constructed during the
pre-colonial era therefore most of these buildings are aged due to wear
and tear, weathering and climatic factors over the years thus resulting
in dilapidated nature which might not respond positively to modern day
maintenance day techniques, the reason for this assertion being 51%
repair – replacement strategy, such buildings, the cost of their repairs
might equal over 50% cost of new construction.
Buildings and infrastructural decay also stems from poor workmanship and
poor supervision (Amobi 2003), most of these defects arises from the
fact that the skill employed during the production of these buildings
are defective, the supervisory most at times is minimal or left in the
hands of unskilled foremen thus creating a chasm which will be filled by
unprofessional ethics thus resulting in failure in the life of the
structure which will eventually be translated to the overall life span
of the building/structure.
This study aims to identify the shortcomings which militate against the
effective maintenance of buildings and infrastructures. Therefore there
is need for effective maintenance of all these buildings and
infrastructures and also identify the external factors militating
against effective maintenance of building and infrastructural facilities
to perform its functional requirement
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