CHRONIC DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTIVE MEASURES

CHRONIC DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTIVE MEASURES

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ABSTRACT

The centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) define chronic disease as prolonged illness that do not resolve spontaneously and are rarely cured completely. According to the CDC, chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The most prevalent and prominent chronic diseases thus: cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease (stroke) and diabetes – are linked by common and preventable biological risk factors, notably high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and overweight, and by related major behavioral risk factors: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. The Preventive measures which involves avoidance of the risk factors are in this write-up

Keywords: Chronic Disease, Cerebrovascular Disease, Preventive Measures, Risk factors, Tobacco.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgments         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction -      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Overview    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Types of Chronic Diseases      -        -        -        -        -        -        2

CHAPTER TWO

Chronic Diseases, Sign and Symptoms and Their Risk Factors    -        5

2.1     Cancer        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.2     Diabetes Mellitus -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.3     Cardiovascular Disease -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.4     Alzheimer's Disease       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.5     Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease    -        -        -        -        13

2.6     Osteoporosis        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.7     Fibromyalgia        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.8     Epilepsy     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.9     Multiple sclerosis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.10   Hypertension       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

CHAPTER 3

Chronic Disease and Their Preventive Measures-       -        -        -        22

3.1     Cancer Preventive Measures   -        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2     Diabetes mellitus Preventive Measures       -        -        -        -        22

3.3     Cardiovascular Disease Preventive Measures      -        -        -        23

3.4     Alzheimer’s Disease Preventive Measures  -        -        -        -        24

3.5     Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-   -        -        -        -        24

3.6     Osteoporosis        -        -        -                  -        -        -        -        25

3.7     Fibromyalgia        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.8     Epilepsy     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.9     Multiple Sclerosis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.10   Hypertension       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

CHAPTER FOUR

Conclusion and Recommendations -        -        -        -        -        -        27

4.1     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

4.2     Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

References  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     OVERVIEW

          A chronic disease is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months.

In Epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection for example tobacco smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.

Preventive Measures consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

Common chronic diseases include arthritisasthmacancerCOPDdiabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are generally preventable when risk factors are known and preventive measures are taken into proper consideration.

Chronic diseases constitute a major cause of mortality, and the World Health Organization (WHO) attributes 38 million deaths a year to chronic diseases (Ward and Black, 2016).

1.2     Types of Chronic Diseases

          Chronic Disease have often been used to describe the various health related states of the human body such as syndromes, physical impairments, disabilities as well as diseases. Epidemiologists have found interest in chronic conditions due to the fact they contribute to disease, disability, and diminished physical and/or mental capacity. For example, high blood pressure or hypertension is considered to be not only a chronic condition itself but also correlated to diseases such as heart attack or stroke.

Additionally, some socioeconomic factors may be considered as a chronic condition as they lead to disability in daily life. An important one that public health officials in the social science setting have begun highlighting is chronic poverty (Hulme and Shepherd, 2003).

There are four major types of chronic disease classified by the World Health Organisation in 2015 and they are:

1.     Cancers

2.     Cardiovascular diseases, including cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and ischemic cardiopathy

3.     Chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

4.     Diabetes mellitus

Other examples of chronic diseases and health conditions include:

·        Addiction

·        Alzheimer's disease

·        Atrial fibrillation

·        Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

·        Autoimmune diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and relapsing polychondritis

·        Bipolar disorder

·       




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