COMPARATIVE QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Gongronema latifolium AND Allium sativum

COMPARATIVE QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Gongronema latifolium AND Allium sativum

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page

Title page

Certification-        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  i

Dedication - -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  ii

Acknowledgement -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  iii

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  iv

Table of content-   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  V

List of tables         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -  vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study- -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem-        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3     Aim and Objectives-       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Significance of the Study-        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.5     Justification of the Study-         -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.6     Scope of the Study-        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.7     Research Hypothesis-     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Garlic (Allium sativum)-  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.1.1  Chemistry---         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.1.2  Garlic and Cardiovascular Diseases-   -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1.3  Anticancer Potential-      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1.4  Adverse Effects-   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.2     Utasi (Gongronema latifolium)- -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.2.1  Medicinal Uses-    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        10

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     Collection, Authentication and Preparation of the Plant Sample-           23

3.2     Extraction of Plant Sample-      -        -        -        -        -        -        23

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1:    Results-      -        -        -        --       -        -        -        -        -        28

4.2     Discussion- -        -                  -        -        -                  -        -        29

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Conclusion- -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

5.2     Recommendation- -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

          References


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

The tropical rainforest is the most biologically varying ecosystem on earth and it is enriched with enormous natural plant resources with rich dietary and medicinal properties utilized locally in folkloric medicine (Dalziel, 1937). Although modern medicine may be available in developing countries, the use of herbs in treatment of diseases has often gained popularity for historical and cultural reasons (Nwangwu et al., 2009), making traditional medicine an unavoidable global discuss. The use of medicinal plants is one of the primary complementary advances to medicine in many parts of the world (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001). The presence of wide range of bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites has made plants promising source of modern synthetic drugs for management of several diseases. One of the basic principles of medicinal herbs is that all constituents in the whole plant extract work collectively to achieve therapeutic efficacy (WHO, 1996). The use of plant extracts in treatment and prevention of diseases have shown a comprehensive framework of healing by stimulating the body’s own innate healing capacities in a manner that is safe and effective (Tietz, 1976).

Gongronema latifolium is commonly called Utazi in the south eastern and Arokeke in the south western parts of Nigeria. It is used as vegetable in the preparation of many African dishes. In traditional folk medicine, the leaf is used for treatment of diabetes and hypertension as well as for treatment of typhoid fever (Okafor, 1987). It is also used to dispel stomach upset and pains and to enhance the return of menstrual cycle. Gongronema latifolium is primarily used as a staple vegetable/spice by some African cultures to help support the pancreas (Morebise et al., 2002). The hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic properties of the ethanolic stem extract of Gongronema latifolium have been articulated in a review by (Farombi, 2003).

Garlic, Allium sativum L. is a member of the Alliaceae family, has been widely recognized as a valuable spice and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders. Cultivated practically throughout the world, garlic appears to have originated in central Asia and then spread to China, the Near East, and the Mediterranean region before moving west to Central and Southern Europe, Northern Africa (Egypt) and Mexico (Lutomski, 1987). Chinese strongly believe that garlic prolongs longevity (Srivastava et al., 1995) and is useful in treating most human diseases, including infections, cancer and heart diseases.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

This research investigate the comparative quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum

1.3     Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research work is to determine the comparative quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanol extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum.

The objectives of this study include:

    To investigate the phytochemical properties of G. latifolium only

    To investigate the phytochemical properties of A. sativum only

    To compare the quantitative phtytochemical of G. latifolium and A. sativum so as to justify its African ethnomedicinal use.

1.4     Significance of the Study

Gongronema latifollium plant is by herbalist in Nigerian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (Sakihama et al., 2002; Ugochwukwu et al., 2003 Edet etal., 2011). Also, a number of researchers have been carried out on the biological activity of the leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium. Ugochukwu et al. (2003) reported that the leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium is used for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NNDM), investigated in the NIDDM-induced rats. Morebise et al. (2002); sakihama et al., (2002). Recent studies indicate that garlic extract has antimicrobial activity against many genera of bacteria, fungi and viruses. The role of garlic in preventing cardiovascular disease has been acclaimed by several authors. Chemical constituents of garlic have been investigated for treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, platelet aggregation and blood fibrinolytic activity. Thus, will support it continued usage in nutrition, treatment and management of diseases.

1.5     Justification of the Study

Evaluation of plant products to treat diabetes mellitus is of growing interest as they contain many bioactive substances with therapeutic potential. In recent years, several authors evaluated and identified the ant-diabetic potential of Gongronema latifolium. A claim by herbalist proves that that Gongronema latifolium have been used to reduce blood sugar levels of diabetic mellitus patients. Also the study b Edet et al., (2011), which showed treatment of diabetes mellitus justify this investigation. Therefore, this study will identify the fractions of the plant that has more phytochemical properties.

1.6     Scope of the Study

This research work was specifically limited to the following;

Ø The preparation of the ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium  

Ø The preparation of the ethanolic extract of  Allium sativum

Ø Analysis of the phytochemical property  of Allium sativum

Ø Analysis of the phytochemical property  of Gongronema latifolium

1.7     Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: There is no significant effect in the  comparative quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum

Alternative Hypothesis: there is a significant effect effect in the  comparative quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum


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