PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME BRANDS OF BITTERS SOLD IN AKWA IBOM STATE

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME BRANDS OF BITTERS SOLD IN AKWA IBOM STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgement -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

List of Tables        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

List of Figures      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ix

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.0 Introduction   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

 1.1    Background of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2 Statement of the Problem    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.3 General Objective of the Study     -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3.1 Specific Objective of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.4.  Justification of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0. Phytochemicals        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.2. Mechanism of Action of Phytochemicals         -        -        -        -        29

2.3. Biological Functions of Phytochemicals          -        -        -        -        30

CHAPTER THREE:  MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. Materials        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

3.1.1 Reagents      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

3.2 Methods          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

 3.2.1 Collection of Samples of Local Bitters -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.2 Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of Bitters         -        -        -        38

3.2.3 Detection of Alkaloids     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.4 Detection of Flavonoids   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.2.5 Detection of Steroids       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.2.6 Detection of Terpenoids   -        -        -        -        --       -        -        40

3.2.7 Detection of Anthraquinones     -        -        -        -        -        -        40

3.2.8. Detection of Phenols       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

3.2.9. Detection of Saponins (froth test)       -        -        -        -        -        41

3.2.10 Detection of Tannins      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

3.2.11 Detection of carbohydrates      -        -        -        -        -        -        42

3.2.12 Detection of proteins and amino acids -        -        -        -        -        42

3.2.13 Detection of oils and Resins     -        -        -        -        -        -        43

3.2.14. Detection of cardiac glycosides        -        -        -        -        -        43

3.3. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis    -        -        -        -        -        43

3.3.1. Estimation of Alkaloids  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        44

3.3.2. Estimation of Flavonoids -        -        -        -        -        -        -        44

3.3.3. Estimation of Total Phenols      -        -        -        -        -        -        45

3.3.4. Estimation of Saponins   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        45

3.3.5. Estimation of Total Cyanides    -        -        -        -        -        -        45

3.3.6. Etimation of Total Tannins       -        -        -        -        -        -        46

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        48

4.2 Discussion      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        49

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1. Conclusion     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        54

5.2.    Recommendation  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        54

REFERENCES     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        55


LIST OF TABLES

table 4.1: Qualitative Phytochemicals Analysis of Goody Bitters,

 Teco Bitters and\Goko Cleanser        -        -        -        -        -        -        47     

table 4.2: Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of

Goko Cleanser, Teco Bitters and Goody Cleanser  -        -        -        48


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Basic structures of pharmacologically derived alkaloids        -        8

Figure 2. Structures of some basic glycosides         -        -        -        -        12

Figure 3: Basic structures of flavonoids        -        -        -        -        -        13

Figure 4: Basic structures of some phynolics -        -        -        -        -        16

Figure 5: Basic Structures of some Tannins  -        -        -        -        -        20

Figure 6: Basic structures of Terpenes -        -        -        -        -        -        22

Figure 7: Basic structures of Anthraquinones -        -        -        -        -        23

Figure 8: Basic Structures of some Essential Oils   -        -        -        -        27

Figure 9: Basic Structures of some Derived Steroids        -        -        -        28


ABSTRACT

Goko cleanser, Teco cleanser and Goody Cleanser are poly-herbal mixtures that are sold in large commercial quantities in Akwa Ibom State. Due to their perceived therapeutic values and relative affordability; the poly-herbal mixtures are highly patronized by the citizens of the State. This study was therefore carried out to screen for the phytochemical constituents of these herbal mixtures. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out. The qualitative analysis was done using Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method. The qualitative phytochemical analysis reveals that all the herbal mixtures were rich in alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, emodins, proteins and carbohydrates. The quantitative analysis was done in triplicates and the result was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software 20 with a significant level at (P<0.05). The result showed that Goko cleanser has a high concentration of saponins (21.48±0.11) and also abundant in alkaloids (16.23±0.06). Teco cleanser was shown to be abundant in Saponins (35.37±0.00), flavonoids (17.99±0.01) and alkaloids (12.81±0.00). Goody cleanser was highly concentrated with alkaloids (12.10±0.00).

Keywords: Phytochemical constituents; Goko cleanser; Teco cleanser; Goody Cleanser

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Herbal mixtures have been the strength of traditional medicine for years now. In recent times, many authors have conducted several researches works on herbal mixtures to determine its therapeutic effects (Udochukwu et al., 2015; Amandeep et al., 2015; Huzaifa et al., 2014; Feng et al., 2014; Gazuwa et al., 2013; Ekor, 2013; Akinjogunla et al., 2011; Nnodim et al., 2010; Duncan, 1957; and Hill, 1952;). Over three quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicine with an increasing trend globally. In addition, herbal medicine may be beneficial but not completely harmless (Oreagba et al, 2011). Phytochemicals are present in a variety of plants utilized as important components of both human and animal diets. These include fruits, seeds, herbs and vegetables (Okwu, 2005). Diets containing an abundance of fruits and vegetables are protective against a variety of diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Herbs and spices are accessible sources for obtaining natural antioxidants (Okwu, 2004). Phytochemicals are chemical compounds formed during the plants normal metabolic processes. These chemicals are often referred to as “secondary metabolites of which there are several classes including alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, glycosides, gums, polysaccharides, phenols, tannins, terpenes and terpenoids (Harborne, 1973; Okwu, 2004).

 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Bitters are beverages, often alcoholic that is flavoured with herbal essences that give it a bitter flavour. They are produced from root and herb extracts of plants and spices. Bitters are marketed as a “cure-all” patent medicine in Nigeria and a lot of them have never been subjected to scientific scrutiny (Anionye and Onyeneka, 2016). The generic term applies to all bitter liquors and herbal bitters. Bitters are produced from herb and root extracts, from the narcotic components of (primarily) tropical and subtropical plants and spices. Herbal bitters are much sought after for their health benefits and they have become regular medicines in many Nigerian homes. The use of herbal bitters is an alternative way to compensate for some perceived deficiencies in orthodox pharmacotherapy (Sofowora, 1989). Herbal medication has been reported ethnomedically to prevent, treat, manage and cure several diseases from cough to cancer. This proven efficacy has resulted in great patronage for any product that comes with the name 'herbal'. A lot of these herbal bitters have not been investigated to ascertain their phytochemical constituents.

          It is therefore very essential to investigate the phytochemical constituents of these herbal bitters to know the right constituents that are beneficial to health and to also investigate some other probable constituents that are harmful to health.

 

1.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

          Akwa Ibom State, a fast growing city is witnessing an unprecedented growth in the area of businesses. One of such businesses is the tremendous rate at which herbal bitters are being displayed and sold in the state. Different brands of herbal bitters are produced while others are brought into the state for merchandise. This research is therefore aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents of these bitters.


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