THE EFFECT OF QUININE AND TRIPLE ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMEN ON THE HISTOLOGY OF THE FETAL CEREBELLUM OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS

THE EFFECT OF QUININE AND TRIPLE ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMEN ON THE HISTOLOGY OF THE FETAL CEREBELLUM OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

This research work evaluated “the Histomorphological Effects of Quinine and Triple Antiretroviral Regimen on fetal cerebellum of Albino Wistar Rats”. Forty female wistar rats weighing between 180-220g were sorted into eight groups with 5 rats each whose estrous cycles where monitored. Sexually active male of the same strain was added into each group to ensure fertilization. Vaginal smear from each of the females was collected following overnight mating by putting few drops of saline in vagina and recollecting and checks for spermatozoa under microscope. The present of sperm in the vaginal smear indicated day zero of pregnancy and administered started on day 7. Group 1 was taken as the control group and was administered with distilled water. Group 2-8 were the experimentals, Group 2-4 were given 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg body weight of quinine hypochloride injections intraperitoneally respectively eight (8) hourly for seven days. Group 5 animals were administered 17.1mg/kg body weight of the triple antiretroviral regimen orally respectively for 7 days. Groups 6-8 were administered concomitantly 17.1mg/kg triple antiretroviral regimen daily + Quinine 10mg.kg 8 hourly, 17.7mg/kg of triple antiretroviral regimen daily + quinine 20mg/kg body weight 8 hourly and 17.7mg/kg of triple antiretroviral regimen  + quinine 30mg/kg body weight 8 hourly for 7 days respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized to remove the fetuses and each fetus was sacrificed to harvest the cerebellum for histological analysis. The result revealed a significant (p>0.05) reduction in the fetal body weight and placental weight following administration of quinine, antiretroviral combination drugs and more significant (p>0.05) reduction was observed in quinine and antiretroviral combination drugs co-administration treated groups dose dependently compared with the control group. This is suggestive of intrauterine growth retardation caused by these drugs. In these results, it was observed that the administration of quinine and antiretroviral combination drug produced notable distortions to the cytoarchitecture of the fetal cerebellum within the experimental groups with the quinine and antiretroviral drugs co-administration treated groups showing a more severe degeneration dose dependently.

Keywords: Quinine, Triple antiretroviral regimen, fetal cerebellum, body weight and placental weight.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                             TITLE                                                       PAGE

Title Page -          -        -        -        -        -        i

Declaration -       -        -        -        -        ii

Certification -      -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgements -    -        -        -        v

Abstract -  -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Contents -       -        -        -        vii

List of Plates -     -        -        -        -        x

List Figures -       -        -        -        -        xii

List of Tables -    -        -        -        -        xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

•                                                Background of the Study -     -        -        -        -        -        1

•                                                Statement of Research Problem -     -        -        -        -        8

•                                                Aims and Objectives of the Study - -        -        -        -        8

•                                                Significances of the Study -    -        -        -        -        -        9       

•                                                Scope of the Study -     -        -        -        -        -        -        9

•                                                Justification of the Study -     -        -        -        -        -        10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1              General Literature Review -     -        -        -        -        -        11

2.2              Drug of Study -    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.2.1           Quinine -     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.2.2           Triple Antiretroviral Regimen -        -        -        -        -        -        21

2.3              Organ f Study -    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

2.3.             The Cerebellum -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

2.3.1           Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum - -        -        -        -        25

2.3.2           Embryology of the Cerebellum -       -        -        -        -        27

2.3.3           Subdivision of the Cerebellum -        -        -        -        -        27

2.3.4           Histology of the Cerebellum    -        -        -        -        -        30

2.3.5           Functions of the Cerebellum - -        -        -        -        -        32

2.3.6           Blood Supply of the Cerebellum       -        -        -        -        33

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1              Material -    -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  35

3.2              Animal Care and Protocols -   -        -        -        -                  35

3.3              Drugs Preparation and Administration -    -        -        -        36

3.4              Treatment and Experimental Design -        -        -        -                  36

3.5              Termination of Experiment and collection of specimen

Sample-      -        --       -        -        -        -        -                  39

3.6              Histological tissue Processing -         -        -        -        -        -        39

3.7              Statistical Analysis -      -        -        -        -        -        -        42

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1              Results -     -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  43

4.1.1           Effects of Quinine and Triple Antiretroviral Drugs on Fetal

Parameters- -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  43

4.1.2           Histopathological Analysis of Effects of Quinine and

Antiretroviral combination drugs on the fetal Cerebellum -    48

4.2              Discussion -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  58

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMSRY CONCLUSIONS AND

 RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1              Summary -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  64

5.2              Conclusions         -        -        -        -        -        -        -                  65

5.3              Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -                  65

REFERENCES    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        67

LIST OF PLATES

PLATE                          TITLE                                                       PAGE

I                            Photomicrograph of control

                             group rats’ cerebellum.- -        -        -        -        -54

II                          Photomicrograph ofcerebellum of group 2

                             rats treated with 10 mg/kg of Quinine.       -        -        55

III                         Photomicrograph of cerebellum of group 3

rats treated with 20 mg/kg of Quinine. -     -        56

IV                         Photomicrograph of cerebellum of group 4




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