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Toxins such as drugs, chemicals, endocrine disruptors, biogenetically engineered western diets
and life style among other factors are known to affect normal body functions and most especially
reproductive health (Izegbu et al., 2005). One of such toxins (Drugs) which posses adverse
health hazard despite it`s advantages is Ketoconazole an antifungal drug used in the treatment of
fungal infections such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis and para
coccidioidomycosis (Amir, 2008).
Ketoconazole is packaged pharmaceutically in the form of tablets, Creams and injection and has
been reported to inhibit the stimulation of testicular testosterone production by Human Chorionic
Gonadotropine in a dose dependent manner (Richard et al., 2005). Steroids such as
dihydrotestosterone and estradiol are equally, selectively displaced from serum-binding globulin
by ketokonazole (Grosso et al., 2005). The suppression of testicular testosterone synthesis and
displacement of oestrogen from sex hormone binding globulin may decrease the
androgen/oestrogen ration of the blood and contributes to the development of gynaecomastia that
has being reported in some ketoconazole treated patients (Boyden et al., 2005).Administration of
ketoconazole alters sperm indices and causes severe histopathological lesion such as depletion of
germ cells, degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, marked oxidative damage to testicular
lipids and alteration of natural anti oxidants(Amin,2008).
Over the years, there has being increased scientific research to minimize the health hazards
potentiated by some toxin and this was done on phytochemical being extracted from plant
species (Bankole et al., 2007). In an effort to stem the contraindications of some of these
synthesized drugs, Plant medicine (phyto-medicine) has being used as alternatives in many parts
of Africa and the rest of the world (Elujoba et al., 2005).
Effective health cannot be achieved in Africa, unless orthodox medicine is complemented with
traditional medicine (Elujoba et al., 2005).At least 80% of Africans depends on plant medicine
for their health care (Sofowora, 1993).Fruit and vegetables have being recognized as natural
source of various bioactive compounds (Penington and Fisher, 2010). The bioactive property of
fruits and vegetables could be attributed to their phyto-constituents such as flavanoids,
anthocyanins, vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber and carotinoids (Gonz,
Aguilar, et al., 2008).One of such vegetable plant is Sesame indicum whose taxonomic Order is
lamiales, Family is pedialiaceae, Genus is sesamum and Specie is indicum. Sesame seeds exist
in brown, black and yellow forms and are called ‟ ridi” in Hausa, ‟ Ekuku” in Yoruba, ‟ Isasa”
in Ibo and ‟ go-ri-go” in Ebira languages.
Sesame seed has being reported to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids which are Oleic
acid-38.84%, linolenic acid-46.26 % (Nzioku et al., 2009). Trace elements such as Calcium,
Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper and Phosphorous are also reported to be contained in it
(Obiajunwa et al., 2005). Sesame seed is also reported to be rich in phyto estrogenic lignans
which is an important phytochemical known to man (Thompson et al., 1991).
Sesame seed oil has being used as a healing oil for thousands of years it naturally posses
antibacterial property for common skin pathogen such as staphylococcus and streptococcus it
also posses anti fungal, antiviral and anti inflammatory effects (Amir, 2008). The entire sesame
plant are very valuable and serve as staple food in most ethnic groups in north central and south
western part of Nigeria and this may be attributed to the high level of fecundity among adult
males in these regions (Akpan et al .,2006).
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SIMILAR ANATOMY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
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