EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Sesamum indicum ON KETOCONAZOLE INDUCED TESTICULAR DAMAGE IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Sesamum indicum ON KETOCONAZOLE INDUCED TESTICULAR DAMAGE IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Toxins such as drugs, chemicals, endocrine disruptors, biogenetically engineered western diets

and life style among other factors are known to affect normal body functions and most especially

reproductive health (Izegbu et al., 2005). One of such toxins (Drugs) which posses adverse

health hazard despite it`s advantages is Ketoconazole an antifungal drug used in the treatment of

fungal infections such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis and para

coccidioidomycosis (Amir, 2008).

Ketoconazole is packaged pharmaceutically in the form of tablets, Creams and injection and has

been reported to inhibit the stimulation of testicular testosterone production by Human Chorionic

Gonadotropine in a dose dependent manner (Richard et al., 2005). Steroids such as

dihydrotestosterone and estradiol are equally, selectively displaced from serum-binding globulin

by ketokonazole (Grosso et al., 2005). The suppression of testicular testosterone synthesis and

displacement of oestrogen from sex hormone binding globulin may decrease the

androgen/oestrogen ration of the blood and contributes to the development of gynaecomastia that

has being reported in some ketoconazole treated patients (Boyden et al., 2005).Administration of

ketoconazole alters sperm indices and causes severe histopathological lesion such as depletion of

germ cells, degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, marked oxidative damage to testicular

lipids and alteration of natural anti oxidants(Amin,2008).

Over the years, there has being increased scientific research to minimize the health hazards

potentiated by some toxin and this was done on phytochemical being extracted from plant

species (Bankole et al., 2007). In an effort to stem the contraindications of some of these


synthesized drugs, Plant medicine (phyto-medicine) has being used as alternatives in many parts

of Africa and the rest of the world (Elujoba et al., 2005).

Effective health cannot be achieved in Africa, unless orthodox medicine is complemented with

traditional medicine (Elujoba et al., 2005).At least 80% of Africans depends on plant medicine

for their health care (Sofowora, 1993).Fruit and vegetables have being recognized as natural

source of various bioactive compounds (Penington and Fisher, 2010). The bioactive property of

fruits and vegetables could be attributed to their phyto-constituents such as flavanoids,

anthocyanins, vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber and carotinoids (Gonz,

Aguilar, et al., 2008).One of such vegetable plant is Sesame indicum whose taxonomic Order is

lamiales, Family is pedialiaceae, Genus is sesamum and Specie is indicum. Sesame seeds exist

in brown, black and yellow forms and are called ‟ ridi” in Hausa, ‟ Ekuku” in Yoruba, ‟ Isasa”

in Ibo and ‟ go-ri-go” in Ebira languages.

Sesame seed has being reported to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids which are Oleic

acid-38.84%, linolenic acid-46.26 % (Nzioku et al., 2009). Trace elements such as Calcium,

Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper and Phosphorous are also reported to be contained in it

(Obiajunwa et al., 2005). Sesame seed is also reported to be rich in phyto estrogenic lignans

which is an important phytochemical known to man (Thompson et al., 1991).

Sesame seed oil has being used as a healing oil for thousands of years it naturally posses

antibacterial property for common skin pathogen such as staphylococcus and streptococcus it

also posses anti fungal, antiviral and anti inflammatory effects (Amir, 2008). The entire sesame

plant are very valuable and serve as staple food in most ethnic groups in north central and south


western part of Nigeria and this may be attributed to the high level of fecundity among adult

males in these regions (Akpan et al .,2006).


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