THE EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATION ON CHILDREN IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF SHEHU MOHAMMAD KANGIWA MEDICAL CENTRE KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE.

THE EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATION ON CHILDREN IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF SHEHU MOHAMMAD KANGIWA MEDICAL CENTRE KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE.

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ABSTRACT

Exposure of children to ionizing radiation is most commonly from the environment, chiefly through cosmic x-rays and radon, or from medical technology. Medical radiation exposure occurs during diagnosis, therapy, and dental radiography. More is known about the biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation than to non-ionizing radiation from microwave and the electrical fields of other electrical appliance. This review applies only to source of ionizing radiation and does not include the potential risk of indoor radon. The effect and children of ionizing radiation have been studied from war activities and environmental accidents. Projections are made from that data to help pediatricians evaluate risk from radiation when order radiographs.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer (UNSCEAR 2006). For a given radiation dose, children are at a greater risk than adult (UNSCEAR 2013). Ionizing radiation is the only established environmental risk factor for childhood leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), the two most common tumor type in childhood (Belson et al. 2007; Wiemels 2012; Wrensch et al. 2002). Evidence for the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in children comes mainly from studies of exposure to moderate or high doses from atomic bombs or therapeutic radiation (Wakeford 2013; Wrensch et al. 2002). It remains unclear whether dose response relationships observed in these study populations extend to lower doses from more widespread exposures such as diagnostic radiology or natural background radiation (Wakeford 2013).

Natural background radiation is ubiquitous and, for most people, the main source of radiation exposure (UNSCEAR 2000). About a third of this is due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation while the rest is due to inhalation (mainly indoor random) and ingestion of radionuclide (UNSCEAR 2000). While the effective dose from radon is primarily delivered to the respiratory system, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays dominate does to the red bone marrow (Kendall et al. 2009), the primary site of leukemia initiation. In Switzerland, exposure levels of the resident population to background radiation very considerably due to the relatively high radioactivity of crystalline rocks of the central Alphine massif compared to the sedimentary northern Alpine Foreland (Jura, Molasse Basin) (Rybach et al. 2002; Rybach et al. 1996).

Most previous studies on the risk of childhood cancer and background ionizing radiation from terrestrial gamma or cosmic rays were ecological. Results from the studies were heterogeneous. Most of them showed little or no evidence of an association (Auvinen et al. 1994; Evard et al. 2006; Mason and Miller 197; Muirhead et al. 1992; Ricahrdson et al. 1995; Tirmarche et al. 1988), while others suggested a positive (Hatch and Susser 1990; Knox et al. 1988) or even a negative association (Frigerio et al. 1973). Few studies to date have used individual data (Axelson et al. 2002; Kendall et al. 2013; UKCCS Investigators 2002b). A case control study from the UK using measurements made in children’s home found no evidence of an association (UKCCS Investigators 2002b). recently, a record-based case control study from the UK found evidence of an increasing risk with cumulative gamma-ray dose for childhood leukemia but not for other cancer types (Kendall et al. 2013).

Given the limited and conflicting evidence from previous studies, we aimed to investigate the association between external ionizing radiation from cosmic and terrestrial sources and incidence of childhood cancer and its major diagnostic groups in Switzerland using a nationwide cohort study. Geo-coded residential locations at census time points were available for the entire population and a spatial model with separate components for terrestrial gamma radiation and the directly ionizing component of cosmic radiation was used for exposure assessment. Cases were identified from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR, http://www.childhoodcanceregistry.ch/) (Michel et al. 2008).

Vienna 24 October 2013 information service “doses received by children and adults from the sources of ionizing radiation can have different impacts, and their risk should be considered separately in order to predict risk following exposure more accurately for children was the main thrust of the report “effect of radiation exposure of children” presented today at the united nations headquarter in New York. The report, which has been prepared by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been in preparation over the last two years (since 2011) and was presented today to the (UN) united nation general assembly as part of the report of the 60th session of UNSCEAR to the general assembly.

Because of their anatomical and physiological differences radiation exposure has different impact on children compared with adults, said Dr. Fred mettle, chair of the expert group on the UNSCEAR report on effect of radiation exposure of children. He presents the report as a valuable resource for the international medical and scientific community, because as such, children are generally assessed along with adults in epidemiological studies and comprehensive overviews of the effect of radiation on children are generally unavailable.

The report highlights some important issues. For instance, for a given radiation dose, infants and children are more at risk than adults of developing a variety of tumors. This risk is generally, not always immediate but extends later into life, in all the committee reviewed 23 cancer types in their report, some of which are highly relevant for evaluating the radiological consequence of nuclear accidents and for some medical procedures. Children were found to be more sensitive adults for the development of about 2 percent of tumor types including leukemia, and thyroid, brain and breast cancer.

The risk can be significantly higher, depending on circumstance. On the other hand, for about 15 percent of cancer types such as colon, children sensitivity as adults, and for 10 percent of cancer types, such as those effective the lungs, children were less sensitive than adult’s data were 100 weak to reach any conclusion for 20percent of cancer such as those affecting the esophagus and there was a weak or nonexistent link between exposure and risk at any age for 30 percent of cancer such as those of the prostate rectum and uterus or Hodgkin’s disease.

Pediatric radiology involves imaging individuals with disease of childhood and adolescence. The age involved is defined differently in different health care system. The spectrum of diseases in chidings conditions specific to very young children and many conditions common in the adult’s population. Figures derived from the United Nations scientific committee on the effect of atomic radiation (UNSCEA) suggest that about 250 million pediatric radiological examinations in clouding dentals examination per-year were performed worldwide between 1997 and 2007. Children undergoing these examinations require special attention, both because of the diseases specific to childhood and the additional risks to them. In addition, children need special care, in the form provided by parents, corers and comforters, as well as care that has to be provided by specially trained health professionals.

1.1       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

After its discovery by roentgen, in 1895, the x-ray was introduced so rapidly in to the diagnosis and treatment of disease that injuries from excessive radiation exposure began to be uncounted also most immediately in pioneer radiation worker, who were unaware of the risk of such effect at time (brown, 1936). The first such injuries were predominantly skin reaction on the hands of those working with early equipment, but within a decade many other of injury also had been reported including the first cancers attributed to radiation (Stone 1959).

Throughout the century since these early finding, study of the biological effect of ionizing radiation has received continuing imputes from the growing uses of radiation in medicine sciences and industry, as well as from the peaceful and military application of atomic energy. As a resulted of biological effect of radiation have been investigated more thoroughly than those of virtually any other environmental agent. The evolving and extensive knowledge of radiation effect has been influential in shaping measures for protective of human health against many hazards as well.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

It is known that children grow quickly and their cells are more sensitive to radiation. Since effect of radiation takes years to develop, their youth extends the time for any potential effects of ionizing radiation to occur. The radiation doses required to obtain pictures of children are much lower than adult levels. Therefore the risks associated with a diagnostic medical examination for a child need not be greater than that of an adult, and is often much less. Thus medical imaging can be extremely useful at any age to help with the diagnosis and treatment of a number of diseases or conditions. If a child of any age is involved in an accident, a CT scan can be quick and painless way to detect and perhaps critical internal injuries that were not apparent.

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aims of this research work are to know the perception of children toward effect of ionizing radiation in children at Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre Kaduna Polytechnic.

1.4       OBJECTIVES

Ø   To determine why children, absorb more radiation than adults.

Ø   To determine how does the ionizing radiation affect children

Ø   To determine how the radiation are more sensitive in children that in adult

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study is to make the medical doctors, radiologist, technicians and radiographer to the effect of ionizing radiation in children and how to minimize the amount of radiation been subjected to children.

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The project work which is aimed at identifying the “Biological effect of Ionizing radiation” in which in Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre Kaduna Polytechnic..

1.7       SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This research is based on children in Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre Kaduna Polytechnic.

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Ionizing: Is enough energy to remove electrons from atoms thus creating ions. Its properties can be used for the production of energy diagnostic and treatment of the diseases, agricultural and manufacturing processes.

Radiation: Is an energy that radiated transmitted in the form of particles

Children: a young human being blow the age of puberty or blow the legal age of majority.

1.9       SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

In this chapter is tried to introduce the topic which is effect of ionizing radiation among children of age 0-15 years in Ahaz Medical Diagnostic and Services in Kaduna North by defining the subject matter, background of the study, statement of problems, research hypothesis and significance of the study.


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