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Diabetic nephropathy accounts for a significant reduction in life expectancy of diabetic
patients. Diabetic patients with microalbuminuria have increased risk of progression to
overt proteinuria and later progress to renal failure which is usually irreversible and
eventually leads to death. The prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria are not
fully described among black African diabetic patients.
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of micro-albuminuria
and associated factors among diabetic patients in ABUTH, Shika, Zaria.
This was a cross-sectional study of diabetic patients attending ABUTH, Zaria.
Concentrations of Fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (SCr), Urinary
creatinine (UCr), and glycated haemoglobin (GHbA1c) were measured in 170 diabetic
patients and 100 apparently healthy individuals. Microalbuminuria was measured using
immunoturbidimetric method and was defined as Albumin-creatinine ratio ACR between
3–30 mg/mmol. Duration of diagnosis (DOD), Body mass index (BMI), systolic blood
pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were also measured, where
applicable, in both patients and controls.
The prevalence of microalbuminuria among the diabetic patients in this study was 23%.
Mean values in patients versus controls of BMI (26.8±0.43 vs 23.4±0.43kg/m2, p<0.001),
DBP (80±0.56 vs 72±0.69mmHg, p<0.001), FBG (6.3±0.22 vs 3.5±0.07mmol/L,
p<0.001), UAlb (20.2±2.17 vs 8.0±0.31mg/L, p<0.001), GHbA1c (7.2±0.16 vs
4.9±0.07%, p<0.001) and ACR (2.7±0.29 vs 1.0±0.04 mg/mmol, p<0.001) were observed
to be higher with statistically significant differences in patients than controls (p<0.05).
Similar higher and statistically significant values were also observed in mean values of
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FBG, GHbA1c, UCr, UAlb and ACR in microalbuminuric patients than
normoalbuminuric patients (p<0.05).
Sixty one (35.9%) had good glycaemic control with 11.5% having abnormal ACR, 42
(24.7%) at borderline had 14.3% with abnormal ACR and 67(39.4%) those w
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