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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 2
Purpose of the study 5
Significance of the study 6
Research questions 6
Scope of the study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Instructional material 9
Availability of good and relevant instructional materials
in technical colleges 16
Availability of instructional materials in the education program 24
Problems faced by teachers in the use of instructional
materials in teaching Autoelectricty Technology 26
Summary of the literature review 28
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 29
Area of the Study 30
Instrument for Data Collection 31
Validation of Instrument 31
Reliability of Instrument 32
Procedure for Data Collection 32
Procedure for Data Analysis 32
Presentation and Analysis 34
Discussion of Findings 38
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Re-statement of the Problem 42
Summary of Procedure used 42
Major Findings 43
Implication of the Study 44
Suggestions for Further Research 46
This study was undertaken to determine the grey areas so as to improve the utilization of instructional materials in teaching Autoelectricty technology in technical colleges in Niger state. To be specific, the study was determined to focus on availability of instructional materials for teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state, rate of which the teacher improvise to replace the materials that are not available for teaching Autoelectricty Technology, how instructional materials are used for teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state and the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials. Descriptive research design was used for this study. Total population was 500 teachers from five Technical Colleges in the State. Stratified random sampling was used and the sample population was 40 respondents. The instrument for collection of data was face validated by two experts from the department and its reliability coefficient was 0.65. The study showed that a vast number of strategies have been in practice all in an effort to enhance the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching of Autoelectricity.
Background of the study
Education is the bed-rock of any meaningful development. Unfortunately, the education sector in Nigeria has suffered from limited and stringent fiscal budgets and has been starved of both human and material resources (Ihejirika, 2013). The UNESCO recommended that 26 percent of the annual budget of every country in the world should go to education. Unfortunately, Nigeria is still far from this UNESCO recommendation. A’ Aeth (1975) and Coombs (1989) described the situation of African development as educational dilemma. During the colonial era, schools were significantly few which meant that fewer Africans had access to education which was deliberately designed to perpetuate hegemonic European dominance in the dual education system (Abraham, 2000; Chisaka & Mavundutse, 2006).
Learning is an activity that starts at birth and can be expected to continue for a lifetime in classrooms and training centres, effective learning takes place in a well organized way. Facilities and personnel are employed to provide an education designed for classroom learning, which aims to prepare all the students to work and participate in the society which they live.
Teaching at its most literal level educating, imparting knowledge is the most fundamental part of a teacher’s job. It is more obvious than (though just as important as) inspiring, motivating and forming relationships.
According to Adeyanju, (1997) the ability to teach is the concern of the trained teachers, but a complex process. Teaching can occur as a result of importation of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, new information e.t.c.
Caldwen (2004) observed that the most important thing in schools is to have a generation of well educated teachers who care deeply about students getting an excellent education in a subject. Teachers and the quality of teaching are the critical link to improving students achievements. He also view numerous improvement, component exist in schools and in states and local policies to ensure good teaching quality. These include teacher preparation, registration, professional development and evaluation. Some research conducted in these areas revealed that successfully increasing student’s literacy achievements requires creating and sustaining organizational structures in schools, such as focus on assessing and improving the teaching and learning.
Teaching makes acquisition of knowledge and skills possible through systematic interaction between teachers and learners. It happens everyday and involves teacher, learner, methodology and materials interaction. Part of these materials are known as educational technology.
The use of instructional Material in teaching process provide the basis for improved teaching and learning of a subject. They are designed, produced and use to achieve specific instructional goal. Alaku (1998) stated that teachers’ effectiveness depends on his use of appropriate educational technology and audiovisual aids. Appropriate instructional strategies portray good teaching techniques and successful learning. They assist students to enjoy and understand lessons easily especially when they are attached with appropriate methodology.
The introduction of Instructional Material in the teaching and learning process has made our educational system more attractive today. In whatever case learning comes to an individual through the use of sense organs. Which include sense of hearing, sight, test, feeling and smelling.
Instructional Material technology is the process or method of sending information or educational messages by the aids of modern gadgets to promote or make learning more easier. For any educational set up to attain its set goals and objectives such institution must rely or depend on the optimum utilization of the human and materials resources at its disposal.
Instructional Materials according to Dike (1989) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners, they add clearity to the topic and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning according to Njoku (1980) is the goal of education that learners should be able to retain what is taught. Instructional materials make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.
It is a believe that learning is best perceived when those senses are used together for example if what to be taught by the teacher can be hard, seen, and practiced by the learner the learning could be best perceived.
When we look at the present educational process and advancement in the field of technology one can suggest that in teaching especially Autoelectricity Technology a teacher cannot avoid the use of instructional materials for better learning, it would be rather difficult for the teacher to manage this group of students without attracting the use of instructional materials.
Silvins and Carry (1986) pointed out that experimentation with the use of instructional material as educational medicines suggests the following
1. It is an important method for teaching and learning at all instructional levels including adult programmes
2. When used properly instructional materials provide motivation for students to assume more responsibilities for learning
3. The use of instructional materials improve instructional programme with more preparation and assistance from specialized personnel.
There are still teaching challenges found to be confronting the attainment of the required minimal standard and set goals of the government. The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Autoelectricity Technology in Technical Colleges in Niger State is not different from what obtain in other subject areas and other parts of the country in general.
This study work is an attempt to look into the use of instructional material in teaching Autoelectricity Technology in technical and vocational colleges in Niger state and their availability, the technical teacher attitudes toward the use of the instructional material. This state of condition is not new however a critical look into the problem of teaching Autoelectricity Technology in both technical and vocational colleges in Niger state is of paramount importance.
Statement of the problem
This study work is an attempt to look into the use of instructional material in teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state and their availability, with the technical teacher attitudes toward the use of the instructional material, been a technical teacher in one of the technical colleges the state of condition is not new, however a critical look into the problem of teaching Autoelectricty Technology in both technical colleges a lot need to be put in place in term of availability of instructional material and personal effort of the technical teacher in improvising and their attitude toward the used of instructional materials.
Purpose of the study
The study aim at appraise the utilization of instructional materials in teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state specifically the study will
1. Identify the availability of instructional materials for teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state.
2. To find out the rate of which the teacher improvise to replace the materials that are not available for teaching Autoelectricty Technology.
3. To find out how instructional materials are used for teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state.
4. Identify the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials.
Significance of the study
The study will highlight the state of availability of instructional materials in teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state. This will keep the state ministry of education and the management of the institution’s under study to know the rate at which the instructional materials are available in the state technical schools in Niger state.
The research will expose the rate at which the teacher’s in the school are able to improvise to replace the instructional materials that are not available. This will help the schools management and the ministry of education officials to assist the efforts of the teacher by assessing the teachers periodically
The finding of the study will also reveal the rate at which the teachers make use of instructional materials during teaching and learning process. This will also help the principals, ministry of education officials as well as the parents to see the rate at which the teachers are making effort toward effective learning and teaching of the students, finally the finding of the research will be at great value to other researchers in this area of specialization
The research questions that will guide this study are
1. How available are the instructional materials in technical colleges?
2. At which rate do teachers improvise to replace the materials not available?
3. What is the rate at which materials are used in teaching Autoelectricty Technology effectively in technical schools?
4. What is the level of utilization and application of the available instructional materials?
Scope of the study
This study is aim at assessing the types of instructional material suitable for teaching Autoelectricty Technology in technical colleges in Niger state and also how to make judicious use by utilizing the instructional materials. This study is primarily concerned with the availability the use of instructional materials by the teachers and the level of improvisation of these instructional materials effectively in teaching and learning of Autoelectricty Technology in Niger state.
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