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Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                           ii

Declaration                                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                v

Table of contents                                                                                        vi

Abstract                                                                                                     viii


Background of the Study                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                     9

Purpose of the Study                                                                                  10

Significance of the Study                                                                                      10

Research Questions                                                                                    11

Scope of the study                                                                                               11


Meaning and concept of technical education                                                        13

Importance of technical education                                                              17

Availability of Instructional materials/equipment and for teaching

Welding and fabrication                                                                             18

Adequacy of facilities and equipment for technical skills acquisition                   20

Methodologies of teaching technical subject generally                                22

Problems of teaching and learning as it affect Welding and Fabrication     29

Strategies for improving the performances in Welding and Fabrication    33

Summary of related literatures                                                                             35


Research Design                                                                                         38

Area of the Study                                                                                       38

Population of the Study                                                                                       39

Sampling and Sampling Techniques                                                           39

Instrument for data collection                                                                     39

Validation of the Instrument                                                                      40

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       41

Method for Data Collection                                                                        41     

Method of Data Analysis                                                                           41


Data presentation and analysis                                                                            42

CHAPTER V:     SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND                                                    CONCLUSIONS

Introduction                                                                                                         47

Re – Statement of the Problem                                                                             47

Summary of Procedures used                                                                     48

Major Findings                                                                                           48

Discussion of study                                                                                    49

Implication of the Study                                                                                      54

Conclusion                                                                                                 54

Recommendations                                                                                                55

Suggestion for Further Research                                                                56

References                                                                                                  57

Appendix A Letter of validation                                                                61

Appendix B Letter to the Respondents                                                                62

Appendix C Questionnaire                                                                         63


The study tries to evolve strategies for improving students performance in welding and fabrication technology in technical colleges of Kaduna state. The specific purposes of the study were: to identify the problem affecting students’ performance in Welding and fabrication in National Technical Certificate Examinations, determine the adequacy of instructional materials provided for the teaching and learning of Welding and fabrication in technical colleges of Kaduna state, identify most suitable techniques for teaching Welding and fabrication in technical colleges and identify possible ways that could be adopted in order to improve the performance of students in Welding and fabrication. Four research questions were formulated to guide this study. The population of the study is made up of 15 welding and fabrication teachers. Since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kaduna state. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyze the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that there is inadequacy of instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of Welding and Fabrication technology, lack of modern text books, inadequacy of teaching materials, lack of maintenance culture among others are the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Welding and Fabrication in technical colleges of Kaduna State, learning of Welding and Fabrication technology in technical colleges and adequacy of tools for practical Welding and Fabrication in technical colleges. Based on these findings, it was recommended that technical education curriculum planners should review the curriculum to suit the needs of the society based on model that will adopt to the changing needs of the Nigerian society, only qualified and well trained technical teachers with the relevant teaching qualification should be employed to teach in our technical schools among others.



Background of the Study

Technical and vocational education could be defined as those aspect of education involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various section of economic and social life (federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).

Technical vocational education is define according to Akerele (2007) as that aspect of education that exposes the learner to the acquisition of demonstration benefits and sustainable lively hood. The national policy on education has placed a premium on vocational and technical education in view of its important role in technological and industrial development of Nigeria. It is recognized as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge (FRN, 2004).

Also Oni (2007) described technical vocation education as that type of education which fits the individuals for gainful employment in recognized career as semi-skilled workers or technicians or sub professionals.

According to Audu (2013) any form of education that is geared towards teaching technical skills and attitude suitable to such skill can be regard as technical vocational education.

Tilak (2002) emphasized that technical vocational education if well planned and coordinated will guarantee student with skills, increase production process resulting from technological advancement. The nature of the demand for skills both in the quality and quantity help in promoting the need for vocational and technical education.

The broad based curriculum of technical education is designed to offer students chance to test their abilities so that they can become self reliant in their choice of career.

According to National Policy on education (NPE) (2004) the goals of technical and vocational education shall be to:

i.                   Provide trained manpower in applied science, technology and business particularly at craft advanced crafts and technical levels.

ii.                 Give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically.

iii.              Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills for agricultural commercial and economic development.

Technical colleges in Nigeria have been training people to become craftsmen and technicians. Training qualifies them for jobs both in public and private sectors of the economy.

Both sectors, according to Ndomi (2004), require well trained and competent technicians who can operate and maintain the available       technical equipment. According to Nigeria policy on education    (2004), technical education is that aspect of education which leads to       the acquisition of practical skills in metal construction, foundry,           interior decorations, carpentry, and joinery e.t.c. as well as basic        scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is an ardent need for qualities technical college for acquiring the desired knowledge (education) and           training to produce graduates that can perform competently in their         chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. The major goal of vocational institutions is to prepare students for successful employment in the labour market (finch and crunkicton, 2009). This condition can be met through a curriculum that is relevant and comprehensive with relevant training of students in skills acquisition in their technical trade areas for future development of the key sector of          the economy in order to meet the basic needs of electricity, roads and machinery among others. Students of metal work technology courses such as welding and fabrication are an important      part  of the curriculum in technical colleges, but a supportive school environment is a fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of the curriculum (Bybea and loucks-Horsley, 2000) . This aspect of the curriculum can only be implemented where facilities in the workshops are adequate and relevant. Availability of appropriate faculties enhance student learning by allowing them to be involved in demonstrations, and practice will continue to build their skills. According to leigh body and Kidd (2008), there are certain things the trainer or teacher must do as well as the student which may involve careful planning of his activities for effective learning.    

The technical colleges play vital roles in Nigeria. They train and produce technicians for industry, they impart vital technical skills in the youths, they help towards the goal of self employment and job creation and in the struggle towards technological advancement and acquisition.          
Through the Technical colleges, youths acquire such skills as skilled technicians: bricklayers, carpenters, painters and auto mechanics; laboratory and pharmacy technicians, electrical/electronic technicians and skilled vocational nurses, etc.  
According to the Federal Ministry of education (FME) 2004, "Technical Education is defined as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge”.         
Technical education provides opportunities for the mastery of skills and knowledge in selected occupations as well as for the development of personality for useful living. They essentially:          
(a) Provide general education.          
(b) Provide training in selected occupations.       
(c) Help trainees to develop the requisite skills and abilities necessary for securing and retaining a job.    
 (d) Help in creating employment and self employment.        
The curricula of vocational schools are centered on craft/engineering trades, agriculture, business and home economics. Today there are a total of 132 Technical Colleges made up of:

19 Federal Technical Colleges          
110 State technical Colleges   
3 private Technical Colleges

(NBTE, 2002)

The technical colleges are under the auspices of the ministries of education and the National Board for Technical Education. Each technical college is headed by a Principal.

Welding and fabrication is one of the various areas of specialization in metal work technology. Metal work technology is the totality of all the process involved in the production of metal objects. Other areas of metal work are: fitting and machinery of mechanical production which deals with the use of machine tools or hand tools to produce fabricated metal components and articles like funnels, water cans, containers for putting beverages and others welding projects, which is concerned with joining of two or more pieces of metal together with the aid of heat and welding rod: foundry which deals with castings of metal into various shapes forging which is the process of heating metal pieces to a certain temperature and hammered to a required shapes.

On completion of welding and fabrication the students will be able to understand workshops safety rules and their application in machine       shop, from the physical properties manufacturing process and     application of ferrous and non-ferrous metals in common use. Select          and use common measuring, marking out, cutting and striking tools. Understands the basic working principles of drilling machine and be able to use it for various types of screw treads rivets and be able to rivet and cut screw by hand, understand the application of various types of screw threads and rivets cut screw by hand, understand the 150 system of tolerance and fits, and their application in engineering production, produce simple engineering component on the bench, understand the essential features and working principles of the center lather and carry out basic operations such as turning, stepped turning, facing , taper turning, knurling and undercutting. Also on completion of the course, the students will be practically competent. Use all tools correctly ensuring the machinery guards and protective eye shield are use at all times, comply with the general rules for safe practice in the work environment at all times. Use and select hand tools for carrying out various bench fitting and assembly tasks, tools, hacksaws, taps, reams, drills, dividers, surface gauge, produce thread using tap and dies, correctly grind chill point angles, drills, twist and flat drills, select and set drilling machine speeds to carryout a range of operations using the appropriate coolants: drilling, reaming, counter sinking, counter boring, paton metal joining by a range of processes. Cut through the joints and investigate the depth of penetration of the metals at the interface. Process: soldering, brazing and fusion welding and mark out on other materials, datum lines, angles, radial circles and hole positions without mastering the skills that will scale them through the labour market successfully. With the low level of skill acquisition there is great fear of failure that prevents an individual venturing into unfamiliar ground. Ezekwu, (2002) also observed that the practical training given to welding and fabrication students may not be sufficient for them to become self reliant, he claimed that what we are practicing now is for examination purpose to attain a certificate of education, hence there are many employees that cannot face the challenges of the task, they use engage to handle. A metal work technology graduate can only become self employed if he is practically balanced with good entrepreneurial initiatives. The labour market has become saturated and metal work technology graduate float the streets without government paid jobs majority of these graduate are without sufficient practical skills and entrepreneurial initiatives to make them establish a workshop of their own. They have faces that clearly spelt out frustration, dejection and hopelessness.

Akale, (2004), observed that the infusion of entrepreneurial education in N.C.E technical curriculum is a reaction to the escalating incidence of graduate’s unemployment. The goal of entrepreneurial skills is to orient student towards self reliance. Welding and fabrication training will be directed towards more practical oriented society with more entrepreneurship and practical computer training.

Aina (1991) noted that the techniques of teaching used by teachers do not encourage initiative among students. He equally added that many technical teacher are not willing to accept change in method of teaching technical subjects.

However it was observed that performance of student, particularly those that in the Welding and fabrication. Technology trade is not encouraging based on certain inadequacies in technical colleges in Kaduna state.

Ehiametalor and Sofolahan (1989) observed that there is not enough vocational required skill, to teach in the vocational and technical school and such is constituting a serious draw back in the development of technical colleges.

Again Nzelum (1993) remarked that buildings and well equipped workshop are of paramount importance in the institution of learning unfortunately the same cannot be seen of most of Welding and fabrication workshop in technical colleges of Kaduna state. From the foregoing, it can be said that some technical colleges in Nigeria are faced with problem of teaching and learning technical subject particularly in Welding and fabrication technology because of lack of trained teachers, training facilities as well as poor teaching method. Therefore it’s necessary to examine the problems affecting the performances of the student in Welding and fabrication teaching in technical colleges of Kaduna state.

Statement of the Problem

The issues confronting the teaching and learning of welding and fabrication are enormous. For instance, Musa’az. (1980) said that the problem being faced in Nigeria educational system include the following ;- Storage and maintenance of tools and equipment, classroom furniture, trained and supportive staff and supply of enough equipment.

However, due to the lack of training and retraining, workshops facilities and materials as well as obsolete equipment in most of technical colleges in Kaduna state, the teachers of Welding and Fabrication technology found it difficult to actualized the objective of welding and fabrication as highlighted by the National Policy Education. These contribute to the low skills of the student in the welding and fabrication.

From the above it seems that the performances of student in Welding and fabrication in technical colleges of Kaduna state could be affected by the following;- Inadequate instructional materials, facilities/ equipment and appropriate methods of teaching. In view of the foregoing observations therefore it becomes necessary to identify some of the strategies that could be employed in order to improve the performances of students in Welding and fabrication in the technical colleges of Kaduna state.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evolve strategies for improving student performance in Welding and Fabrication Technology in Technical Colleges of Kaduna  state. Specifically the study is intended to;

1.                 Identify some the problems affecting students’ performance in Welding and fabrication in National Technical Certificate Examinations.

2.                 Determine the adequacy of instructional materials provided for the teaching and learning of Welding and fabrication in technical colleges of Kaduna state.

3.                 Identify most suitable techniques for teaching Welding and fabrication in technical colleges.

4.                 Identify possible ways that could be adopted in order to improve the performance of students in Welding and fabrication.

Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following set of people: Students, teachers, school administrators and the government. The students will benefit because the problem facing the teaching and learning of welding and  fabrication will be identified and consequently tackled. The teachers will benefit because the findings of the study will help enlighten them on ways of improving on their teaching methods.

The school administrators will benefits because they will now know how to manage and tackle the challenges facing Welding and Fabrication. The finding of this study will avail the state government information in the state of technical college in the state and hope filling encourage them provide the necessary infrastructure, equipment and training materials that are basic requirement for learning.

Research Questions

This study specifically intends to find answers to the following research questions.

1.                 The problems affecting the teaching and learning of Welding and fabrication in technical colleges of Kaduna state

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