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ABSTRACT

This thesis examines several questions on aesthetic and morality as well as utilitarianism in theory and practice using Hausa songs as the corpus in which goodness and the general philosophy of life are portrayed. It also analyzes primary and secondary data in the research methodology and outlines the study’s aims, objectives, purpose, justification,   scope,                          significance,                    research    methodology,    and theoretical framework. Moreover, the thesis appraises goodness from the Islamic, Western, and Hausa perspectives and presents an overview of Hausa oral songs, and definition of concepts. The thesis also analyzes the meaning and consistency between beauty and goodness as well as the classification of goodness.

Moreover, the thesis examines goodness in dispensing social and legal justice, which comprises trust, equality, fairness, kindness, generosity and kinship ties among the citizenry. Love and mutual assistance create harmony in society, while egotism instigates violation of the law and injustice. The thesis regards truth in Hausa thought as consisting of trust and justice, while also yielding conformity. In addition, a trustworthy person is loved by everyone due to his esteemed morality nurtured by good name, environment and parental upbringing. His kind responsibility towards humanity earns him respect, and society considers him a father and a leader whose sound advisors help him in distributing justice to mankind.

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TSAKURE

Wannan kundi ya nazarci dangantakar tarbiyya da }awanci, kuma ya kawo ma’anar }awa da kyau da yadda suke da nasaba da nagarta a }o}arin ganowa tare da ]ora *Fa’idanci a wa}o}in baka da yadda wa}o}in suke adana kyautayi da taho-mu-gamar rayuwa. Hanyoyin gudanar da wannan bincike sun }unshi tambayoyi da                                                            nazarin rubutattun littafai da kundaye har ma da ma}alu. Kundin yana }unshe da farfajiyar bincike da ma}asudinsa da dalilansa, da fa’idarsa da muhimmancinsa da hanyoyin gudanar da binciken sannan kuma ra’in binciken. Da]in-da]awa, kundin ya waiwayi kyautayi a Hausa da Musulunci da Turai da wa}ar baka sannan kuma ya kawo ma’anar wasu ke~a~~un kalmomi.

Bugu-da-}ari, adalci yana wanzar da farin ciki da jin da]in rayuwa, domin ya }unshi kyautayi da amana da daidaito da karamci da kuma zumunci a tsakanin mutane. {auna da taimakon juna suna taimaka wa kwanciyar hankali, sa~anin son zuciya da kan haifar da zalunci da }uncin rayuwa. Kundin ya gano cewa, gaskiya a Hausa ta }unshi amana da adalci sannan kuma mutumin kirki yana da kwar jinni saboda nagartasa da kyan kyansa da kishin al’ummarsa da kuma irin nagartattun mutanen da suke kewaye da shi. Duka duka, binciken ya gano kuma ya kasa kyautayi gida biyu: kyautayi ta zahiri da ta ba]ini

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BABI NA [AYA

GABATARWA

1.0 SHIMFI[A

Kyautayi }ir}irarriyar kalma ce da wasu malaman zaure suke fassara kalmar

Ihsan da ita, bincike ya gano sun fara da kyautata yi sannu-a-hankali aka ya da

ga~ar –ta kuma aka ha]e kyauta da yi daga nan kyautayi ta samu. Sai dai kuma wasu

suna duban kyautayi jam’in kyauta ce, wasu kuma suna bayyana kyautayi ]abi’a ce

wadda ta }unshi kyau da nagarta. Kuma nagarta ta ha]a da ri}o da addini da

gaskiya da amana da adalci da kara da kunya da tausayi da ladabi da biyayya da

yawan kyautatawa.

Kyautayi ~oyayyen suna ce kuma kammalallar ]abi’a ce da ta dace da

tunanin mutane kuma take inganta al’amari. Sannan kuma Kyautayi ta }unshi

kyakkyawan }uduri da magana mai da]i, tare da yin aiki nagari da sauransu. Wato

gaskiya da mutunci da kyau ~angarori ne na kyautayi sannan kuma kyautayi na iya

kasancewa ta zahiri ko ta ba]ini. Bugu-da-}ari Kyautayi ]abi’a ce tagari, wadda kan

tabbata a mu’amala. A wani lokaci hannu yana shaida abin da aka yi wa kyautayi,

ido yana ganin kyan abin da aka kyautata, }wa}walwa na yin zurfin tunani game da

kyan abun da aka kyautata ko kyautatawar da aka yi, sannan kuma zuciya na yin

fari matu}ar ido ko kunne da sauran sassan jiki suka tabbatar al’amari ya yi kyau.

Nazarin kyautayin Bahaushe a wa}o}in baka, wani yun}uri ne domin gano

dangantakar wa}a da falsafa da kuma yadda wa}o}in baka suke damfare da nagarta

1


domin inganta tunani da rayuwar al’umma, kasancewar wa}a tana da saurin shiga

zuciya (Furniss, G. 1996:129), tana kuma na]e nau’o’in adabin baka sannan tana yin

}arin haske game da ilmi da basirar mawa}i da yadda yake sarrafa al’adun

al’ummarsa (Abdul}adir, [. 1975:190-1 & 204-5). Sannan kuma, tasirin wa}a a

rayuwa muhimmin al’amari ne tsawon zamani, kuma mawa}a suna bayar da

gudunmuwa wajen jadda }uduri ko manufa, sannan kuma wa}a tana raye

kodayaushe (Richards, I. R. 1924:14-16 & 20). Da]in-da]awa, }ira aikin da ma}iri

ya aiwatar suna da dangantaka da al’amuran da ke faruwa da shi ko kuma ma a iya

cewa, }ir}irar ma}iri tana nuna magijin abin da duniyarsa ta }unsa ne. Manufa idan

aka dubi duk wata }ir}ira za a tarar cike take da kai-kawon da ake yi a duniya, idan

aka kula sosai sai a fahimci duk wata }ir}ira tana isar da sa}o ne ga matarka (‘yan


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