KAMANCI DA BAMBANCI TSAKANIN KARIN HARSHEN KATSINANCI DA DAURANCI TA FUSKAR FURUCI DA TSARIN SAUTI

KAMANCI DA BAMBANCI TSAKANIN KARIN HARSHEN KATSINANCI DA DAURANCI TA FUSKAR FURUCI DA TSARIN SAUTI

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ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that it is common to have different groups of people who speak the same language, but one may find out that there exists some similarities and differences among these groups of people in some lingustics areas such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, lexicons etc. This dynamism of language as a means of communication is what makes up of an area worthy of research (study). In Hausa language, there are different dialects that are being used by the native speakers of specific communities, states and groups, in their day-to-day interactions for their basic and other socio-cultural needs. In view of the aforementioned, this research work has explored some of the similarities and differences between Katsina and Daura dialects, in terms of phonetics and phonology. In achieving the aims and objectives of the study, the factors that are responsible for the similarities and differences of the two dialects have been analysed.

 TSAKURE

Duk da kasancewar za a samu al‟umma masu harshe guda amma a tarar da yan bambmace-bambance na yanayin furuci da tsarin sauti da tsarin jumloli da gundarin kalmomi daga wannan gari zuwa wancan gari ko daga wannan nahiya zuwa waccan. Wannan ne ya sa yake da muhimmanci qwarai wajen yin nazari domin duk inda aka samu xan Adam za a tarar yana da harshe wanda yake magana da shi dan isar da saqonsa ga masu jin wannan harshe. A harshen Hausa akwai kare-kare waxanda ake amfani da su a takamaiman wani vangare ko wata nahiya ko wani sashe na qasa, don haka, za a tarar mutane suna amfani da harshe domin gudanar da harkokinsu na yau da kullum. A qoqarin cimma wannan buri ne suke karya harshensu dai-dai da yadda suke buqata domin hulxarsu da zamantakewa. Saboda haka, wannan nazari an qalailaice inda aka gano bambance-bambance da kamancin da aka samu tsakanin karin harshen Katsinanci da Dauranci ta fuskar furuci da tsarin sauti. Domin cimma manufar wannan bincike an duba abubuwa da suka haxa da dalilan da suke haifar da wannan bambance-bambance da kamanci domin tabbatar da hasashen da aka yi a wannan bincike.

 BABI NA [AYA: GABATARWA

1.1 Shimfi]a

Matsayin harshe a rayuwar [an‟adam yana da matu}ar muhimmanci don duk inda ka sami

[an‟adam za a tarar yana da harshe wanda yake magana da shi don isar da sa}onsa ga „yan

uwansa masu jin wannan harshe. A harshen Hausa akwai kare-karen harshe wa]anda ake

amfani da su a takamaiman wani ~angare ko wata nahiya ko wani sashe na }asa. Don haka a

duk inda aka samu mutane, lallai za a tarar suna amfani da harshe domin gudanar da

harkokinsu na yau da kullum. A }o}arin cimma wannan buri ne sukan karya harshensu daidai

da yadda suke bu}ata domin hul]arsu da zamantakewa su ]ore. Ta haka ne sukan }ir}iri

sababbin kalmomi wa]anda suka sa~a wa daidaitacciyar Hausa. A cikin aikin Crane, L.B. et al,

(1981:179-180) an bayyana ma‟anar karin harshe da cewa:

“A dialect is a regional variety of language that may differ from other varieties of the language in features of its vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. Further, dialect may be seen as a variety of language used by one occupational group or one social class.”

Ma‟ana:

Shi karin harshe wani kari ne na yanki a cikin harshe wanda ya

bambanta daga kare-karen harshe, musamman ta yanayin rumbun kalmomi da nahawu da furuci. Bugu da }ari, za a iya kallon karin harshe kamar wani nau‟i ne na harshe wanda masu sana‟a iri ]aya ke amfani da shi ko masu wani matsayi ko mu}ami.”

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Saboda haka wannan bincike zai yi nazari ne a kan kwatanci tsakanin karin harshen

Katsinanci da Dauranci, domin kasancewarsu a cikin manyan rukunin kare-karen harshen

Hausa da muke da su. Haka nan kuma, bincike ya gano irin gudummuwar da karin harshen

Katsinanci da Dauranci suka bayar wajen bun}asa harshen Hausa.

1.2       Dalilin Bincike

An gudanar da rubuce-rubuce da dama a kan harshe da kare-karen harsuna. A vangaren

kare-karen Hausa akwai kamar aikin Bergery (1934) wanda ya fi mai da hankali a kan

gundarin kalmomi (lexical) waxanda suka shafi kare-karen harshen Hausa. Da aikin Liman

(1978) da Malka (1978) waxanda suka fi mai da hankali a kan rabe-raben karin harshen Hausa.

Don haka dalilan wannan bincike su ne:

a. Ana ganin waxannan karuruwan suna da tarayya musamman saboda kasancewar su a

shiyya xaya tare da tsarin rayuwa makamanta juna, alhali kuwa akwai ximbin kamanni

da bambance-bambane a tsakaninsu.

b. Haka kuma, duk da cewa an gudanar da bincike da dama a fagen karin harshen Hausa,

kamar yadda muka gain a sama, ba a qalailaice „yan bambance-bambancen cikin gida

da suka shafi Karin harshen Katsinanci da Dauranci ba.

1.3       Manufar Bincike

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Duk da yake akwai dalilai da dama da suka sa gudanar da wannan bincike, amma manya

daga cikinsu sun haxa da:

(a) Gano inda waxannan karuruwa suka yi kama da kuma inda suka sha bamban ta fuskar

furuci da tsarin sauti.

(b) Gano tasirin maqwabtaka a tsakaninsu, duk da yake a gefe xaya akwai Katsinanci da

Sakkwatanci, kuma a gefe xaya ga Dauranci da Damagaranci.

1.4       Muhimmancin Bincike

Wannan bincike yana da matuqar muhimmanci a vangaren ilimin harshe domin:

(a) Ya yi bayanai kan fagen nazarin ilimin walwalar harshe da kuma shi kansa karin

harshe.

(b) Ya nuna alaqar da ke tsakanin waxannan kare-karen harsuna.

(c) Haka n


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