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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of Problem 7
Significance of the Study 9
Purpose of the Study 9
Research Questions 10
Scope of the Study 11
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
The Concept of Vocational and Technical Education 12
The Aims of Vocational and Technical Education 14
The Importance of Vocational and Technical Education in
National Development 14
Concept of Industry and TVET Partnership 18
Advantages of Industry and TVET Partnerships 19
Disadvantages of Industry and TVET Partnerships 22
Challenges to TVET Institution-Industry Partnership 24
Strategies for Strengthening Industry and TVET Partnership 30
Summary of related literature reviewed 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 38
Area of the Study 39
Population of the Study 39
Sampling and Sampling Techniques 39
Instrument for Data Collection 40
Validation of the Instrument 40
Reliability of the Instrument 41
Method for Data Collection 41
Method of Data Analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Research questions 43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Re-statement of the procedure 48
Summary of Procedure 49
Major Findings 49
Discussion of Findings 50
Implications of the study 53
Recommendations of the study 54
Suggestions for further studies 56
The study sought to assess Status Of Partnership Between Industries And Technical Vocational Education Training In Niger State. The specific purposes of the study were to determine state of partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State, Challenges to partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State, and Strategies for strengthening sustaining partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State. Three research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 130 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Niger state. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that there exist partnership between TVET institutions and industry in Niger state but it is still very low, Lack of finance among others are among the challenges to partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) should organized seminars and workshops for industries and TVET institutions on the benefit of partnership among others are among the strategies for strengthening partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Background of the Study
education is necessary for socio-economic development of any society in fact, thee has never really been any argument over the link between education and development because education help to build national capacity to apply science and technology to social and economic problems.
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) aims at providing graduates with knowledge and practical skills which are required at work place. It is the sector that provides number for sustainable national development. It is obvious that education in general and technical vocational education and training in particular is the key to increased productivity. In support, Ayonmike (2002) stated that technical and vocational education training TVET is the bedrock of sustainable development of any nation. Technical education is said to be a comparatively new phase of vocational education which is designed to meet the complex technological needs of modern industries. It is worth nothing that all technical education programmes and vocational out not all vocational education programme are technical.
According to the National Policy on Education (NPE) “2013” is that form of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. In this sense it forms a practical segment of education that involves skill acquisition. Therefore, technical education is a subset of vocational education. Technical vocational and education training (TVET) education emphasizes horizontal and vocational articulation within the education system between school and the world of work, thus contributing to the education of all form of discrimination. The objectives of technical vocational and educating training (TVET) in Nigeria includes the following system relevant, flexible, effective, efficient, accessible, sustainable and which fulfills the general obligation toward the Palestrina society. Thus flexibility of the system becomes paramount, the system must be capable of quickly adapting itself to the changing demand of the labour market, if it is to remain relevant. Flexibility is obtained through modularization of the system, as small modules can easily be changed, abolished or developed in accordance with the perceived needs. sustainability any training system is relevant, flexible, effective and efficient will be sustainable, as long as sufficient financial resources are available. The financing of the Palestinian TVET system will be based on five sources of income. Government funding, a levy/tax on employers, payments from students, income generating activities and donations and grants, accessibility although it has been decided to create a demand driven system, it is realized, that the system has a responsibility towards the weaker group of society, therefore, a system of quotas will be established, giving preference in some students from disadvantaged group. Effectiveness and efficiency, the effectiveness of the system, or extent to which training outputs correspond, especially in term of quality, to what is intended to produce, is ensured through comprehensive and continuous teacher training and curricula development and through the adaptation of a system, that focuses on exposing students primarily to practical workshop exercises in an industry like environment, rather than chalk and talk lectures. The efficiency of the system, or the relationship between inputs and outputs, will be improved by making better use of the existing training institutions and by integrating the vocational education installations currently under the authority of the ministry of education and the vocational training institutions currently under the ministry of labor, and by improving the link between the TVET system and the community colleges. Both changes will reduce the present fragmentation of the educational system, and thus improving efficiency some (TVET) programs in some Asian countries, various country specific studies indirect that the TVET system has not respond very well in south Asian region. The TVET stream is quito small. Despite there being a growing demand for a skilled labour force, the labour market outcomes of these who have followed the vocational path are not good. However the government are giving full attention to making the TVET system robust in these countries, various new policy initiated was have been undertaken by the government in recent years.
Technical vocational and education training (TVET) focuses on specific tiate and impacts the practical skills which allow individual to engage in a specific occupational activity. TVET is not only important in providing employment opportunities to individual but also helps in enhancing the productivity of firms. Technical vocational and education training are indispensable instruments for improving labour mobility, adaptability and productivity, thus contributing to enhancing firms competitiveness are redressing labour market imbalance (Caillod, 2014) TVET comprises all skills transfers formal and informal, which are required in the improvement of protective activities of a society. Technical and vocational education training (TVET) programs is to provide relevant and quality technical and vocational education training for both male and female in order to enable them to meet the requirement of the labour market. The objective of the programs is to increase or decrease to technical and vocational education training by expanding TVET regional institutes from 16 to 32, increasing TVET principal school from 32 to 102, and establishing 364 TVET district school by 2015. The number of students in technical and vocational education training will also increase to 150,000 with percent being formal students.
The technical vocational and education training (TVET) institution and technical colleges are committed to offer education and training to youth and adult in technical, commercial and scientific field relevant to the needs of the national economic.
In addition, the TVET institution have a responsibility to collaborate with industry and commerce in the planning of programes which will facilitate the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes and valves necessary for the development of self and the nation. The storage of training facilities such as hand tools, workshop equipment, audio visual equipment and a general run down state of the various physical plants among other things bore testimony. The consequence has been a general erosion of standards in the delivery of TVET and an inability to provide technical and vocational education training to meet present and future trends in science and technology, as well as satisfying the nation’s need for skilled manpower. The objectives of technical colleges are to encourage students to realize the important of reading personal and professional goals through, to continually evaluate and appraise every fact of the colleges programs to ensure relevant to the needs of the employment community, effective proportion of students for success in career and compatibility with the colleges standard, and to also maintain employer satisfaction within the community by providing professionally trained and educated graduates for industry, business, health care and government. To purse the objective, the good curriculum school environment and partnership the required to offer an innovation curriculum developed with the desperations and interest of the students at the center, nurturing also partnership with local and international organization, giving students wide range of opportunities to experience the world of work to create provision of opportunities for students to extend their learning outside of the formal curriculum, including an entitlement to four hour poweek of enrichment activities from years also creating flexible approaches to learning and teaching.
The technical vocational and education training (TVET) is creating and promoting an enabling environment for public private partnership for enhancing investment in technical training, information and communication promoting integration of information and marketing of training opportunities through ICT mediated channel and system, training system will be designed to operate within a framework of pen-ended and flexible structure in the context of lifelong education and facilitate. This principle for continuing training for improvement of professional qualification and updating of knowledge skills and understanding, the objective partnership to establish a system for curriculum development and competence based assessment to enable TVET graduates acquire right skills, knowledge and right attitudes to perform goals to the required standard, it enable framework that will ensure a centrally coordinated system for accommodate of the TVET sector. In TVET the following types of partnership are (GL) general partnership (LP) limited partnership and (LLP) partnership. The GL partnership involve two or more owners carrying out a business purpose, general partners share equal right and responsibilities in connection with management of the busness and any individual partner can bind the entire group to a legal obligation. The LP partnership allow each partner to reside or her personal liability to the amount of his or her business investment, not every partners can benefit from this limitation at least one participant must accept general partnership status, exposing himself or herself to full personal liability in the business debts and obligation and the LLP partnership retain the tax advantages of the general partnership from, but offer some personal liability protection to the participants. Individual partners in a limited liability partnership are not personally responsible for the wrongful acts of others partners, or for the debts or obligations of the business.
Statement of the Problem
The fundamental objective of a partnership between TVET instituted and the industry is to encourage the provide sector to use it’s facility to raise capital and the capability to build projects on time and to budget for the welfare of the technical vocational institutions, without having to compromise its profit motive (Olabiyi, Okafor & Bamidele, 2014). Partnership between TVET in institutions and the industry is a voluntary arrangement between non-governmental organization and government to execute or jointly carryout a project with the aim of sharing the profits and bear any involving risk together (Aina & Akintude, 2013). More so, partnership between TVET institution and the industry describes a relationship in which public and private resources are put together in achieving a goal or set of goals mutually beneficial to both the private entity and the public (Witter, Marom & Kurt, 2012 in Aina & Akintunde, 2013).
National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) has always emphasis that government alone cannot bear the burden of functional education in Nigeria, there is that need for private sectors to be more actively involved. Individuals and non-government agencies have a vital role to play in partnership between TVET in institutions and the industry to ensure quality and functional education. There are lots of risks involved in education leading to wastages in educational system of the nation, since government is the major or only active actor it bear the risk alone. Involvement of the other actors in the sector will lessen the risks and perhaps curtail the wastage. According to NBTE (2009) there are ways in which the public and private sectors can join together to complement each others strengths in providing education service and helping developing countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals for education and to improve learning outcomes.
According to Olorufemi & Ashaolu (2008) the industries in Nigeria do not have much involvement in training, funding and curriculum development of our technological institutions, which are the trademark of industrialization in the developed nations. There is no direct link and interaction between the industries and the technological institution in research activities and manufacturing. Despite efforts by international organization such as UNESCO-UNEVOC for partnership between TVET institutions and industries to foster the production of productive, competent, and employable graduates of TVET institutions across the globe and Africa in particular, no visible forms of partnership have been established by TVET institutions and industries in Nigeria and Niger state in particular. In support, Massayvoi (2002) opined that, in most African countries, partnership between local industries and universities is not very common. Therefore, this study examined the stated of partnership between industries and technical vocational education training in Niger state.
Significance of the Study
The findings from this study will be beneficial to TVET institutions, teachers, and lecturers; Niger State Ministry of Education; Industries; and Future researchers. TVET institutions, teachers, lecturers, Niger State Ministry of Education; and Industries will benefit from this study.
Teachers and Lecturers will benefit because the findings will give them the insight to know the state of partnership between TVET institutions and industries. TVET and Industries will benefit because they will know also how partnership between TVET institutions and industries can be improved and sustained. Furthermore, future researchers will make the findings of this study a reference point when conducting related research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the status of partnership between Industries and Technical Vocational Education Training in Niger state. Specifically, the study examined the:
1. State of partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State.
2. Challenges to partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State.
3. Strategies for strengthening sustaining partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State.
The following research questions guided the study:
1. Are there any partnerships between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State?
2. What are the challenges to partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State?
3. What are the strategies for strengthening partnership between TVET institutions and industries in Niger State?
Scope of the Study
The study was limited in scope to TVET teachers and lecturers in TVET institutions in Niger State in Nigeria.
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