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Title page                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                 ii

Approval page                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                v

Table of contents                                                                                        vi

Abstract                                                                                                      viii


Background of the study                                                                                      1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                     8

Purpose of the Study                                                                                  9

Significance of the Study                                                                                      10

Research Questions                                                                                    11

Scope and delimitations of the Study                                                                   11


Skill Acquisition                                                                                         12

Importance of skill and technical education                                                         15

Teacher                                                                                                       19

Electrical installation technology                                                                28

Electrical installation and maintenance works                                           29

Availability of material, equipment in Electrical installation

and maintenance works workshop                                                             32

The condition  of tools and equipment in workshop for

teaching Electrical installation and maintenance workstrade.                     34                                   34

The support by the ministry of education and science technical                          37

Summary of Related Literature                                                                            42


Research Design                                                                                          43

Area of the Study                                                                                                 43

Population of the Study                                                                              44

Instrument for data collection                                                                     44

Validity of instrument                                                                                45

Reliability of the instrument                                                                       45

Method of data collection                                                                           45

Method of data analysis                                                                                       45


Introduction                                                                                                47

Data presentation                                                                                                 47

CHAPTER FIVE:        SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                                                                           RECOMMENDATION

Introduction                                                                                                51

Re-statement of the problem                                                                      51

Summary of the procedure                                                                         51

Major Findings                                                                                           52

Discussions of the findings                                                                         52

Implication of the findings                                                                          53

Conclusion                                                                                                 54

Recommendation of the findings                                                                54

Suggestions for further studies                                                                             54

References                                                                                                   56

Appendix                                                                                                   58


The study sought to skill improvement needs of teachers in Electrical installation and maintenance works in technical colleges in Kaduna state. The specific purposes of the study were to determine the quality of Electrical installation and maintenance works teachers, the availability of Electrical installation and maintenance works practical materials and the conditions and effectiveness of Electrical installation and maintenance works workshop in the technical colleges. Three research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 25 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kaduna state.. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that the Qualities of  Electrical installation and maintenance works teachers in the state is good, the level of availability of Electrical installation and maintenance works practical materials in the school workshop is inadequate and the Electrical installation and maintenance works workshop materials, tools and equipment are not in good condition in the technical colleges in the zone. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Kaduna state ministry of education, science and technical board should organize in-service training, workshops, seminars and induction courses for Electrical installation and maintenance works trade teachers in order to provide the skill improvement.



Background of the study

Technical and vocational education could be defined as those aspects of education process involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various sectors of economic and social life. National policy on education (2004)

Technical vocational education is defined according to Akerele (2007) as that aspect of education that exposes the learner to the acquisition of demonstration skills that could be transformed into economic benefits and sustainable live hood. The national policy on education has placed a premium on in view of its important role in technological and industrial development of Nigeria. It is recognized as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge (NDE 2004).

Oni (2007) described technical vocational education as that type of education which fits the individuals for gainful employment in recognized career as semi-skilled workers or technicians or sub-professionals.

According to Audu et al (2013) any form of education that is geared towards teaching technical skills and attitudes suitable to such skill can be regarded as technical vocational education.

Tilak (2002) emphasized that quality of technical vocational education is well planned and co-ordinate will guarantee student with skills, increasing production processes resulting from technological advancement, the nature of the demand for skills both in terms of quantity and quality help in promoting the need for vocational and technical education.

The board base curriculum of technical education was to offer student chances to test their abilities so that they can become self reliable choice of career.

According to national policy on education (NPE) (2004) the goals of technical and vocational education shall be to:

i.                   Provide trained manpower in applied science, technology and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels

ii.                 Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills for agricultural commercial and economic development.

iii.              Give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically

Technical Colleges are post primary schools, where students learn skills in various occupations. According to Bakare (2006), Technical Colleges are charged with the production of craftsmen and technicians. Akpan (2003) said that technical Colleges are designed to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills, basic scientific knowledge and attitude required as craftsmen and technicians at sub-professional levels. Okoro (2006) said they are regarded as the principal Vocational Institutions in Nigeria that give full vocational training intended to prepare students for entry into various occupations as operatives or artisans and craftsmen.

The technical colleges play vital roles in Nigeria. They train and produce technicians for industry, they impart vital technical skills in the youths, they help towards the goal of self employment and job creation and in the struggle towards technological advancement and acquisition.          
Through the Technical colleges, youths acquire such skills as skilled technicians: bricklayers, carpenters, painters and auto mechanics; laboratory and pharmacy technicians, electrical/electronic technicians and skilled vocational nurses, etc.  
According to the Federal Ministry of education (FME) 2004, "Technical Education is defined as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge”.         
Technical education provides opportunities for the mastery of skills and knowledge in selected occupations as well as for the development of personality for useful living. They essentially:          
(a) Provide general education.          
(b) Provide training in selected occupations.       
(c) Help trainees to develop the requisite skills and abilities necessary for securing and retaining a job.    
 (d) Help in creating employment and self employment.        
The curricula of vocational schools are centered on craft/engineering trades, agriculture, business and home economics. Today there are a total of 132 Technical Colleges made up of:

19 Federal Technical Colleges          
110 State technical Colleges   
3 private Technical Colleges

(NBTE, 2002)

The technical colleges are under the auspices of the ministries of education and the National Board for Technical Education. Each technical college is headed by a Principal.

Graduates who undergo training in Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works are expected to posses work skills for success in Installation of electrical machines and equipment, maintenance of machines and equipment, winding of Electrical machines, testing and inspection of electrical Installations, repair of electrical machines, etc. but graduates of technical Colleges in Kaduna State may have acquired little or no skills in Electrical Installation and Maintenance Practice as observed by the researcher. Most of them have remained jobless because of their deficient skills. They find it difficult to set up their own workshops or to be employed by Electrical Industries in the State.

Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works is one of the trades offered in technical Colleges. It is a Vocational trade that exposes students to skills. According to Wikipedia (2012) Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works  is a programme introduced by way of practical exercise, the maintenance of electrical system and circuits, electrical Installation, Inspection and test procedure. National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (2004) Electrical craftsmen are expected to test, diagnose, service, install and completely repair any fault on electrical machines and equipment using the manufacturer’s manual. In the report of NBTE (2004) the aim of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Practice is to give training and impart the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self reliant.

Improvement is the process of making something better than before.

Improvement according to Olaitan, Amusa and Azouzu (2010) is the ability or condition for becoming better than before. Improvement in this study, is a process of helping graduates of technical Colleges in Kaduna State acquire higher proficiency level and work skills in Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works  for greater efficiency. For work to be done requires energy and skills. Skills according to Michael (2004) is an individual’s capability to control elements of behavior, thinking and feeling within specified context and within particular task domains.

The sizes, quantities, and locations of the materials required and the construction features of the structural members are shown at a glance. These details of construction must be studied and interpreted by each skilled construction craft-masons, carpenters, electricians and others before the actual work is started.

The electricians must be able to; convert the two-dimensional plans into an actual electrical installation, and visualize the many different views of the plans and coordinate them into a three dimensional picture, this ability to visualize an accurate three dimensional picture required a through knowledge of blueprint reading. Since all of the skilled trades used a common set of plans the electrician must be able to interpret the lines and symbols which refer to the electrical installation and also those which are used by other construction trade. The electrician must know the structural makeup of the building and the construction materials to be used.(Mullin, 1987) It states that the installation must be essentially hazard-free, Knowledge of different types of domestic surface wiring becomes necessary (Paddock & Galvin, 1987).

Skill as a concept has been defined by various authors. However, Galenby and Aulk (1993) defined skills as the ability to expertly carry out an operation and task. Skill according to oxford dictionary (2012) is an ability to perform certain activity perfectly with out mistakes. A skill is a learned capacity to carryout predetermined result often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. According to Okorie (2000) skill improves when procedural instruction are matched with performance ativities. Mgbeahurike (2000) further explained that the improvement of skills and abilities in technical education depend upon individuals i.e technicians having real situation on the work as a basis of developing sound judgment and clear out mode of action.

Skills improvement may be defined as a process where the learner moves to become proficient in operation he/she is expected to perform. Kailani and Adamesu (2009) further expressed that, skill development is the art of building upon the skills acquired or possessed to a more advanced  or effective development stage. This is to say skills are acquired first and then developed subsequently through utilization and practice. The whole purpose of education according to Plato is to sort out the different types of people in the society, to train each class in such a way that it will keep to it naturally appointed place and perform it’s specific functions effectively. The National Policy on Education (1981) describes technical education as that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge.

Technical colleges in Nigeria have been training people to become craftsmen and technicians. Training qualifies them for jobs both in public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors, according to Ndomi (2005), require well trained and competent technicians who can operate and maintain the available technical equipment according to Nigeria policy on education (NPE) (2004), technical education is that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical skills in wood furniture construction, interior decoration, carpentry and joinery etc. as well as basic scientific knowledge.

Statement of the problem 

Today’s world of technology depends largely on high skilled manpower for productivity. Technical college has major role to play in the production of this competent manpower for electrical industries. It is expected that graduates should possess skills which will enable them perform in their areas of discipline. But it is clear fact that no nation can grow above their teachers, this is to say that the quality of teachers teaching in our schools will determine out put of the students whom are the leaders of tomorrow.

Osuala (1995) observed that the skilled job opportunities in industries are not filled up. Okorie (1993) reported that technical college products are not competent enough to take up the available skilled jobs. Oranu (2001) stated that technical college product are weak in practice of their trades. Furthermore, the standard of performance of Nigeria technicians in general is at the moment very low thereby retarding the overall productivity of the Nigeria economy (Okorie 2001).

According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) technical colleges are expected to provide trained manpower in applied technology, particularly crafts and advanced crafts and to provide individuals with knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development. It is also meant to provide training and impart the necessary skills on individuals who shall be self-reliant economically. However, students who are expected to acquire the knowledge and skills stipulated by the national policy on education document are graduating from the technical colleges with unsatisfactory results/ achievement.

However, due to the lack of effective teaching, workshops facilities and materials as well as obsolete equipment in most of technical colleges in Kaduna  state, students of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works found it difficult to actualized the objective of technical education as profound by the national policy of education. These contribute to the failure of the student in their exams.

Therefore the need for these study, skills improvement needs of teachers in Electrical Installations and maintenance work technology in technical colleges in Kaduna

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out factors that will enhance the skills improvement needs of teachers in Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works in technical colleges. Specifically the study will determine:

i.                   The quality of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works  teachers

ii.                 The availability of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works practical materials

iii.              The conditions and effectiveness of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works workshop in the tech

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