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In Nigeria and some other parts of the world today, the electricity power supply to consumers (at homes and industries) are not maintained at a stipulated voltage say 240 volts. But the electronics gadgets and some other power operated machines, that we use in our homes, offices and industries requires power with constant or nearly constant voltage for their efficiency, and to avoid damage by the voltage.
Voltage stabilizer is an electronic control circuit or device that is capable of providing a constant or nearly constant output voltage even when there is variation in load or input voltage as low as 90 volt can be boast up to 240 volt by stabilizer at output stage without any voltage fluctuation.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE AIM
This device as defined on the previous chapter as an electronics equipment that gives a constant output voltage within a certain range irrespective of the load at carriers. So, its aim or the aim of producing it is to control the fluctuation of the supply voltage whch causes damages to our machines and electronics appliance. Due the fact that each of these machines and electronics has its operational voltage assigned to it by the manufacturer, above or below which it cannot function very well. This automatic voltage stabilizer helps to maintain the output voltage to be within the range, the machine or the electronics appliance required, and prevent its damage by voltage fluctuation.
2.2 STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLTAGE STABILIZER
The first set of voltage stabilizer come in the manually operated form. It makes use mechanical switches only. These switches cannot operate on their own. (i.e they cannot switch from one transformer terminal to another in response to the varying voltage). As a result of this, the required voltage regulation cannot be achieved. As time goes on, scientist discovered electromagnetic switch called Relay.
This relay acts as automatic switches that operates on their own whenever voltage is supplied to terminals. This component was studied and used to replace mechanical switches in the early stabilizer.
This helps the stabilizer to automatically regulate its output voltage to an extent whenever there is fluctuation of power supply.
For further advance in efficiency of the stabilizer, more of these switches were added. Also some electronics trip circuits which switch off the output voltage of the stabilizer when over loaded where superceded or replaced by current limiter or constant current circuit. On drawing excess current from the stabilizer, the output voltage drops, preventing the current from increasing, thus giving a constant voltage.
2.3 STABILIZER GRADING/APPLICATION
The automatic voltage stabilizer is being graded according to their power output in walls. There are different voltages of stabilizer in the market today, like 250 watts, 500 watts, 1000 watts, 1500 watts, 2000 watts, 3000 watts, 3500 watts, 4000 watts, even 10,000 watts and so on.
Although, some of them have different input and output voltage and current ratings but their power output determines their grade.
The power rating of a voltage stabilizer is determined mainly by the size of the transformer inside the stabilizer. The current rating is also based on the size of the coil used in winding the transformer.
Automatic voltage stabilizer has a very wide application as far as electronics is concerned. It is used for almost all the electrical and electronics gadgets like refrigerator, radio, video, photocopying machine, photographic processing plants, television sets, tape recorders, deep freezers, electrical motors and so on.
The application of stabilizer is being governed or guided by its power ratings as well as the current ratings. Different electronic gadgets have different power, current, and voltage ratings assigned to them by the manufacturers.
Before one should use voltage stabilizer with any electrical or electronics gadgets. He has to check especially its power ratings followed by the current rating, so that he can g et a stabilizer that will suit his appliances. Take for instance, a refrigerator with power rating of 1000 watts, voltage rating 220 watts a.c and current rating of 15 ampers will be used with a voltage stabilizer with equal ratings or the one that has a bit higher ratings than that of the refrigerator with these, the aim of its application is achieved.
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