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'The greatest problem confronting some managers is the question of how to make employees perlorm better. Performance is achieved through causing the enlployee or subordinate or the receiver of the order to act. And to cause the subordinate to act on the orders is achieved through motivation, which is an important clement in promoting productivity.
This study focuses attention on motivational variables in public sector organizations in Nigeria using Power Holding Con~panyof Nigeria, PLc Linugu as case study. It is designed to assess the Performance of workcrs,
evaluate n~otivationalschemes involved in the sector, and to suggest ways of improving production in the sector. The data collection for these purposes was from Textbooks, Newspaper, jourrials and periodicals.
The staff of ITK N Plc, Enugu was also interviewed orally. The data were later tabulated and analyzed using simple percentages. However, the results revealed some of the various problems facing the organization to include inefficiency in PI-ICN Plc, Enugu and unified pay structure (unconditional rcward). 'l'hc study also revealcd that ~nolivation cnhanccs productivity in Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Plc Enugu.
In the course of this research work, the researcher found out that inefficiency in PHCN and low productivity were caused by diversion of money meant Tor payment of staff salaries, fringe benefits and other allowances; into private account by the top management staff.
Another problem confronting PI-ICN Plc, as discovered by the rcscarchcr was disagrccmcnt bctwceli staff of the organization and the nianagcment of the organization, which includcs non-involvement oT worker's
union in decision-malting process'? As a solution, the researchcr recolnmcndcd
that in the Nigerian context, PI-ICN workers should have an effective reward
systcn~both financially and psychologically.
The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees to do this the manager should be able to motivate employees. But this is casicr said than donc. Motivation practice and theory are difl'icult subjects touching on several disciplines. lnspite of enormous research, pure as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more ol'tcn than not poorly practiced. To understand motivation, one must u~ldcrstandIl~rmannaturc it scll*.And licrc lies Ihc problcn~I luman nalurc can
be very simple, yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective inanagement and leadership.
MOTIVAr1'IONIS THE KEY TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
There is an old saying, you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink, only if it is thirsty, so with people. They will do what Ihcy want to do or othcrwisc motivated to do whether it is lo excel on thc workshop floor or in the ivory tower they must be motivatcd or driven to it either by themselves or through external stimulus. The question is, arc they
born with the self - motivation or drive? Yes and no. Motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. 'This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation. Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training. The improve~i~entis a slow and long process. Therefore, motivation techniques can
improve per forn~ancevery cluickl y. There are many options and uninitiated managers may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation.
(a) Positive rei~iforceinentll~ighexpectation
(b) Effective discipline and punishment
(c) Treating people fairly
(d) Satisfying employees' needs
(e) Setting work related goals
(1) Kcstructuring jobs
(6) Base reward on job performance.
l%sentially, there is a gap between an individual actual state and sonie desired state, and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation in effect is a means to reduce and manipulate the gap. It is inducing others in specific way towards goals, specifically stated by the motivator and general incrcase in the overall organizational productivity. Naturally, these goals is also thc nlotivational system wl~ichmust conform to the corporate policy of thc organization .The n~otivationalsystc~iimust be tailored to the situation and to the organization.
I . 1 UACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM
'Fhe National Electric power Authority (NEPA), now Power Holding
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