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In accordance to concrete parking lots which have many similarities to other type of concrete pavement. On the other land hand parking lots differ from other pavements in that, most of the area is intended for storage of vehicles and other goods rather than for movement of vehicle.
The design of concrete parking lots should follow generally accepted procedures of concrete pavements as outline in this guide. load bearing capacity, drainage crack control, life cycle cost, constructability, and maintenance.
The strength of concrete varies from batch to batch and within a batch, the magnitude of these variation defends on the several factors such as the quality of materials, method of batching and the mixed proportions.
Concrete as we should understand must be strong enough, when hardened should resist various stress to which it will be subjected to, and to withstand weathering action often. Concrete can be readily without segregation when freshly mixed and it must be of consistent and easy compatibility in the formwork.
The fine aggregates (sand) fills the spaces between the coarse aggregate. Both aggregates have to be correctly proportioned and graded. The strength of concrete should depend on the following factors as listed below:
1. Properties and type of cement
2. Type, proportion, grading and quality of aggregate
3. Method and adequacy of batching, mixing, transporting, placing, compacting and curing of concrete.
4. Water content
Concrete mixes can be specified by the volume of weight of the constituent materials or by the minimum strength of the concrete.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The design method for concrete parking lots are somewhat empirical and are based on the methods developed for the design of highway pavement (i.e., the” Portland cement” association method [Thickness 1984] and the “AASHTO” design method [AASHTO 1993] ). This method are primarily concerned with limiting both the stresses in the slab and reductions serviceability caused by mixed traffic including heavy trucks, while usually serve fewer sign call vehicles either parked or travelling at slow speed many parking lots projects are not large enough to justify length and detailed design calculation.
The proliferation of many concrete interlocking tiles factories called for a research in to this. The important aspect in the engineering industry for production of concrete, so the quest to know more about the modern technique of this interlocking slab compelled the construction the design of parking lots in interlock.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The statement of problem encountered during the project are as follows:
1. Difficulties in general clearance of the site as the result of equipment in- accomplishing the task are primitive and not sufficient.
2. Too much of conflicting opinions from individuals of different view during the construction.
3. Lack of commitment by the student (group members) to work.
4. Late delivery of material during the construction work.
The beautification of compound normally takes various forms. This include mass concrete, providing lawns, concrete slabs, pavement, etc. the introduction of concrete interlocks is now gaining ground, especially the ones we see around us in the school premises. Concrete interlocking tile actually started gaining recognition in the 80`s and now it is mostly used because of its aesthetic value.
1.4.1AIM OF STUDY
The aim of this study is to realized that the interlocking slab are well constructed, design and layered in the parking lot construction to carry the imposed loadings, deflection and stresses. As with flexible asphalt pavements, an aggregate base accommodates minor settlement; however the difference with the interlock pavement is that it will not crack; another advantage to this pavement is access to underground utilities and ability to reinstate the paving units, thereby reducing waste materials.
1. To ensure the provision of an appropriate number of cars parking spaces with regard to the demand likely to be generated.
2. To ensure that the design and location of car parking is of a high standard, to creates a safe environment for users and enable easy and efficient use.
3. To ensure that car parking is provide in accordance with the school planning policy of NuhuBammalli Polytechnic master plan.
1.5.1SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project gives the guide based on the current knowledge and practices for the design, construction and maintenance of parking lots in interlock slab. It emphasizes the aspect of concrete pavement technology that are different from procedures used to design and construct slab-on grade such as streets, high ways and floors.
Parking lots have most loads imposed on interlock slabs surrounded by other pavement providing some edge support on all sides. Parking lots are usually designed so some of the water is collected internally and is convey away through underground system.
This project write-up is limited to concrete interlocking slab construction and laying processes in NuhuBammalli Polytechnic Zaria.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This project write-up made some strides toward consulting summary literatures, logging on the net and conducting some test.
1.6 CONSTRIBUTION OF RESEARCH TO KNOWLEDGE
At the end of this research work, it should provide valuable information that would be used for future reference work and would also serve as a reference material for similar work for future student and as well as for practicing engineers.
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