COMPARING THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH RIVER SAND AND QUARRY DUST AS FINE AGGREGATE

COMPARING THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH RIVER SAND AND QUARRY DUST AS FINE AGGREGATE

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ABSTRACT

 Nowadays development of infrastructures is becoming number one priority in the world, particularly in the developing countries. So there are great demands within the construction industries for river sand as fine aggregate used in the production of concrete. This has created a very difficult situation; the cost of river sand has increased and also there is great fear from environmentalist and ecologist that in the future there may be scarcity of river sand and the environment and the ecology will be distorted. Hence, the need to find materials which are affordable and available to partially or totally replaced river sand in the production of concrete. This work is focused on the use of quarry dust as a total replacement to river sand in the production of concrete, and comparing the results (compressive strength) to that obtained from conventional concrete made with river sand.

CHAPTER1 -INTRODUCTION

1.0      BACKGROUNF OF THE STUDY

Concrete is a mixture of water, cement or binder and aggregates (fine and coarse aggregate) and is a commonly used material for construction (Barritt, 1984). River sand has been the most popularly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete, but due to the overuse of the material, our environment is the worst hit, also the price of river sand has soar in recent times (Sukesh at el 2013). Unfortunately, the effect of quarry dust content in aggregates on properties of fresh and hardened concrete are not well known (Tahir and Khaled, 1999). A huge amount of quarry dust produced during the crushing of quarry stones in the quarry industries is often considered as waste and is often used as landfills (Rashid at el, 2013). The construction industries in the developing world is looking for alternative materials that can replace the demand for natural sand, thereby reduce environmental load and waste management lost, reduction of production cost as well as augmenting the quality of concrete (Lohan et al 2012). Compressive strength is the criterion for the determination of the quality of concrete (Troxel et al 1968) and as such it becomes necessary that for a concrete to be used, its compressive strength has to be determined. So here comparison is made between the compressive strength of concrete made with river sand and that made with quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of concrete

      1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

              Nowadays development of infrastructures is becoming number one priority in the world, particularly in the developing countries. So there are great demands within the construction industries for river sand as fine aggregate used in the production of concrete. This has created a very difficult situation; the cost of river sand has increased and also there is great fear from environmentalist and ecologist that in the future there may be scarcity of river sand and the environment and the ecology will be distorted. Hence, the need to find materials which are affordable and available to partially or totally replaced river sand in the production of concrete.Therefor the problem confronting the study is to appraise the comparison of the compressive and flexural strength of concrete made with river sand and quarry dust as fine aggregate

1.2   OBJECTIVE S OF THE STUDY

        To   compare   the compressive and flexural strength of concrete made with river sand and quarry dust as fine aggregate

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the compressive and flexural strength of concrete made with river sand?

What is the compressive and flexural strength of  concrete made with  quarry dust?

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study shall  provide an indepth  appraisal on the use of  quarry dust as an alternative to the use of river sand for the production of concrete.

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the appraisal of the comparison of the compressive and flexural strength of concrete made with river sand and quarry dust as fine aggregate

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study was confronted by logistics and geographical constraint.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CONCRETE DEFINED

Concrete is a mixture of water, cement or binder and aggregates (fine and coarse aggregate) and is a commonly used material for construction

RIVER SAND DEFINED

Natural sand from the river

QUARRY DUST DEFINED

quarry dust produced during the crushing of quarry stones in the quarry industries is often considered as waste and is often used as landfills





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