EGG CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF SIX SPECIES OF POULTRY UNDER EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

EGG CHOLESTEROL LEVEL AND BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF SIX SPECIES OF POULTRY UNDER EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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ABSTRACT

Six different poultry species (Indigenous chicken, Broiler, Turkey, Geese, Duck and

Guinea fowl) were studied under extensive system of management to investigate the effect

of rearing system on egg quality, cholesterol level and the blood biochemical profile.

Birds used for the study were obtained from four different locations (Zangon Shanu,

Bomo, Samaru and Kurmin Bomo) in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna

State. Eighteen (18) birds were randomly selected from the flock with three birds (3) per

strain as replicates. Three eggs were collected daily per replicate for the determination of

external and internal egg quality parameters (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth, egg

shape index, shell thickness, yolk width, yolk height and yolk index). Blood samples (2ml)

were collected from the same birds at the end of the laying phase for the determination of

blood biochemical profile, heamatological parameters and cholesterol levels. Data

collected was analyzed using the General Linear Model of the SAS (2002) Software.

Statistically significant means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test

(DMRT). Results obtained from the study showed that the geese had significant (P<0.05)

better external and internal egg parameters for most of the parameters while indigenous

chicken and guinea fowl had the least results for external and internal egg parameters.

Biochemical indices, showed significant (P<0.05) differences in most of the parameters

except high density lipoprotein (HDL) which was not significant (P>0.05) among the

treatments. The calcium (Ca2+) and phosphorus (PO42-) contents of the blood were all

within a similar range (P<0.05) for the species except for duck which had a lower value of

2.06mg/dl. Also, duck had lowest values for blood total cholesterol (3.33mg/dl), low

density lipoprotein (2.20mg/dl) and triglycerides (0.43mg/dl). However, lowest values of

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PO42- were observed in guinea fowl (0.84mg/dl) compared to duck (1.60mg/dl). Other

biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (5.63mg/dl), high density lipo-protein

(1.27mg/dl) and low density lipo-protein (3.93mg/dl), were significantly (P<0.05) better in

goose than other species. Guinea fowl had higher albumin content (45.00mg/dl) compared

to indigenous chicken (26.33mg/dl). The egg cholesterol level differed significantly

(P<0.05) in the poultry species with highest level obtained in guinea fowls (15.30mg/dl)

compared to indigenous chicken (8.83mg/dl), broiler (9.50 mg/dl) and duck (9.50 mg/dl).

Indigenous chicken had higher value for glucose (176.33mg/dl) compared to geese

(47.67mg/dl), though least for cholesterol. Duck and turkey have higher values (P<0.05)

for egg total protein than broiler (53.33 vs. 28.67mg/dl). The results of heamatological

parameters showed that all the parameters measured were significantly (P<0.05) different

amongst the species. However, the monocytes, eosinophiles and bands were not

significantly (P>0.05) different from each other. It was therefore concluded that

differences exist among the various species of poultry birds studied with guinea fowl

(15.30mg/dl) having the highest total cholesterol values for egg quality parameters while

the lowest value (8.83mg/dl) was obtained in indigenous chicken. However, duck

(3.33mg/dl) had lowest values for total cholesterol in the blood and higher values for total

protein (53.33mg/dl), while indigenous chickens had the least value for egg cholesterol

compared to the nutritional standard for hen (410.00mg). Hence, egg and meat of duck

and indigenous chickens are safer to consume compared to other poultry species; and

should therefore be promoted in our farming systems.


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