EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF KHAYA SENEGALENSIS AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POULTRY DROPPINGS

EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF KHAYA SENEGALENSIS AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POULTRY DROPPINGS

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ABSTRACT

Recent studies have incriminated the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to be associated with

emergence of resistance among bacteria. The use of traditional plants remedies has not been

found to be associated with resistance. This work determined the inhibitory effects of extracts of

Khaya senegalensis and Vernonia amygdalina used in traditional poultry farming against

Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas sp and Staphylococcus aureus. The

method of maceration was adopted to extract the plant materials with methanol (70%) and

sterile water as solvents for the extraction and phytoconstituents were screened. One gram of

each sample (poultry dropping) was inoculated in selenite F broth, peptone water and another

one gram each on nutrient broth and incubated at 35oC for 18-24hrs. These overnight cultures

were inoculated directly into Salmonella-Shigella agar, Brilliant green agar, MacConkey agar,

Manitol salt agar and Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB). After incubation at 37oC for 18-24hrs,

plates were read. Typical colonies were Gram stained using standard procedures, consequent

upon that, the isolated Gram negative and Gram positive organisms were subjected to

biochemical tests. Bioassay of the isolates was conducted and further subjected to the plant

extracts, using agar well diffusion method and conventional antibiotics using disc diffusion

method. Findings show the effect of the plant extracts with MICs/MBCs values of 6.25 for both

Khaya senegalensis and Vernonia amygdalina against S. aureus, E. coli, and salmonella sp,

while the MICs/MBCs values of 12.50mg/ml were obtained against Proteus sp, Pseudomonas

sp. This indicated that it can serve as an alternative to conventional antibiotics as used in poultry

production in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Most of the developing countries including Nigeria rely wholly or partly on traditional herbal

medicine for treatment and control of animal and human diseases (Sofowora, 1993). In

Nigeria, traditional veterinary practices play important roles in many areas (Kudi and Myint,

1999). Rural poultry farmers are aware of the need to keep birds in good health and when

they are sick to source for prescription and procure medicaments for treating rural poultry


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