ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill MITAGATES SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill MITAGATES SODIUM ARSENITE-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill ethanol leaf extract on kidney function in sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Forty (40) female Wistar albino rats weighing between 100-161g were grouped into eight (8) groups of five (5) animals each. Group 1 served as the control and was placed on rat feed and water ad libitum.Group 2 was administered 4.1mg/Kg body weight (Kgbw) of sodium arsenite only for 14 days, groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 4.1mg/Kgbw of sodium arsenite for 14 days and 100mg/Kgbw, 200mg/Kgbw and 400mg/Kgbw of extract, respectively for another 14 days. Groups 6, 7 and 8 were administered 100mg/Kgbw, 200mg/Kgbw and 400mg/Kgbw of extract, respectively for 14 days and treatments lasted for 28 days. Results obtained revealed significant (p<0.05) increases in the serum levels of renal function biomarkers in the groups exposed to sodium arsenite only when compared with control. Treatment with the extract however, at different doses, led to significant (p< 0.05) reductions in serum levels of all assayed renal function biomarkers. Furthermore, treatment with extract only at different doses led to significant (p< 0.05) and non-significant (P˃0.05) reductions in serum levels of assayed renal function biomarkers compared with the control. Ethanol leaf extract Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill may therefore be of immense therapeutic value in mitigating sodium arsenite-induced kidney dysfunction in Wistar albino rats.

KEYWORDS: Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill, Sodium arsenite, Toxicity, Kidney dysfunction, Biomarkers.

                                                                                                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLES OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                        Page

Title page              -        -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication            -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgement -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract                -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of contents  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

List of Tables        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        x

List of Figures      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xi

List of Plate    -      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the study     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2 Aim and objectives of the study    -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.3 Justification of the Study    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.4 Significance of the Study    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill       -        -        -        -        -        7

2.1.1   Scientific Classification of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill  -        8

2.1.2     Ethno Medicinal Value of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill -        9

2.1.3 Nutritional Value of Irvingia ganbonensis O’Rorke Baill  -        -        10

2.1.4 Phytochemical Constituents of Ethanol Leaf Extract

 of Irvingia gabonensis O’Rorke Baill          -        -        -        -        11

2.2    Arsenic         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.2.1 Inorganic Arsenic   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.2.2 Sodium Arsenite     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.2.3 Sources of Arsenic Exposure      -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.2.4    Routes of Human Exposure to Arsenics      -        -        -        -        20

2.2.5       Health Effects of Arsenic      -        -        -        -        -        -        23

2.2.6   Mechanism of Arsenic Toxicity         -        -        -        -        -        25

2.2.7 Metabolism of Inorganic Arsenic       -        -        -        -        -        26

2.3     The kidney -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

2.3.1. Functions of the Kidney  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

2.3.1.1 Glomerular Filtration    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

2.3.1.2 Reabsorption and Secretion     -        -        -        -        -        -        32

2.3.2   Markers of Renal Function      -        -        -        -        -        -        32

2.3.3 Creatinine     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

2.3.4 Urea   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

2.3.5 Electrolytes -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

2.4 Sodium Arsenite and Kidney        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

CHAPTER THREE: METHODS

3.1 Materials         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

3.1.1 Chemicals and Reagents  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

3.1.2 Equipments and Materials -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

3.2 Methods          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.1 Collection and Identification of Plant   -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.2 Extraction     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.3 Experimental Design        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.2.3.1 Termination of Treatment/Sacrifice - -        -        -        -        -        40

3.2.3.2 Collection of the Kidneys and Blood Samples -    -       -        -        40

3.2.4. Serum Urea of Estimation Assay -      -        -        -        -        -        40     

3.2.4.1   Procedure -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

3.2.5 Serum Creatinine Estimation Assay -   -        -        -        -        -        41

3.2.5.1 Procedure    -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        42

3.2.6 Serum Potassium Estimation Assay -   -        -        -        -        -        42     

3.2.6.1 Procedure             -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        43

3.2.7 Serum Bicarbonate Estimation Assay-           -        -        -        -        43     




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