EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF Jatropha tanjorensis ON RENAL FUNCTION OF MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF Jatropha tanjorensis ON RENAL FUNCTION OF MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at investigating effects of ethanol leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on renal function of male albino wistar rats. Twenty (20) male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into four (4) groups of five (5) rats each. Group 1 served as the control and animals in Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were administered 100mg, 250mg and 500mg of the leaves extract per kg body weight respectively for 14 days. The parameters determined were urea, bilirubin (direct and total) and creatinine. Through the study carried out on the effect of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves extract on the renal function of albino wistar rats, it was observed that the treatment groups (II, III, and IV) when administered higher doses showed significant and non-significant (P<0.05) decrease in urea, direct and total bilirubin levels when compared to the control group 1. It was also observed that groups II, III and IV showed a non-significant (P<0.05) increase in creatinine levels when compared to the control group. From these results, it can be established that the leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis have no direct effect on renal function and therefore may not be a great cause for concern.

Keywords: Jatropha tanjorensis, Urea, Kidney, Total bilirubin, Creatinine.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                Page

Cover Page -                  -                  -                  -                  -        i

Certification         -                  -                  -                  -                  -        ii

Dedication  -                  -                  -                  -                  -        iii

Acknowledgement                   -                  -                  -                  -        iv

Abstract      -                  -                  -                  -                  -        v

Table of contents           -                  -                  -                  -        vi      

List of Tables -               -                  -                  -                  -        ix

List of Figures -             -                  -                  -                  -        x

List of Plates -                -                  -                  -                  -        xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1                 Background of the Study             -                  -                  -        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                  -                  -                  -        2

1.3     Aim and Objectives of the Study                -                  -        3

1.4     Specific Objectives                  -                  -                  -        3

1.5     Significance of the Study                  -                  -                  -        3

1.6     Justification of the Study                  -                  -                  -        4

1.7     Scope of the Study        -                  -                  -                  -        4

1.8     Limitations of the Study                   -                  -                  -        5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Classification and Distribution of

Jatropha tanjorensis                -                  -                  -        6

2.2     Medicinal Properties               -                  -                  -        8

2.3     Pharmacology                         -                  -                  -        8       

2.4     Activities against Tropical Diseases           -                  -        10

2.5     Physiological Role of Jatropha tanjorensis -                  -        13

2.6     Phytochemistry and Bioactive constituents

of Jatropha   tanjorensis          -                  -                  -        16

2.7    Kidney Enzymes   -                -                   -                  -        18

2.8     Toxicity                -                  -                  -                  -        21

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     Materials              -                  -                  -                  -        24

3.2     Sample Collection          -                  -                  -                  -        25

3.3     Preparation of Extract             -                  -                  -        26

3.4     Experimental Animals             -                  -                  -        26

3.5     Preparation of Stock Sample of Jatropha

tanjorensis Leaves Extract for Administration               -        27

3.6     Experimental Design for Main Study                   -                  -        27

3.7     Animal Sacrifice   -                  -                  -                  -        28

3.8     Preparation of Sera for Analysis                -                  -        28

3.9     Urea Estimation   -                  -                  -                  -        29

3.10   Creatinine Estimation              -                  -                  -        30

3.11   Bilirubin Estimation                -                  -                  -        31

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Results                 -                  -                  -                  -        34

4.2     Discussion            -                  -                  -                  -        36

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

 AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Summary             -                  -                  -                  -        39

5.2     Conclusion           -                  -                  -                  -        40

5.3     Recommendation -                  -                  -                  -        40

References

Appendices

LIST OF TABLES

Table                   Title                                                                     Page

Table 1:      The Experimental Design Showing Dosage

of Extract Administration                 -                  -                  28

Table 2:      Effects of 80% Ethanol Leaves Extract

of Jatropha tanjorensis on Renal Function

of Male Albino Wistar Rats    -                  -                  34


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure         Title                                                                            Page   

Figure 1:    Chemical structures of compounds

isolated from Jatropha tanjorensis    -                  -        18


LIST OF PLATES

Plate           Title                                                                         Page

Plate 1:       Jatropha tanjorensis (Hospital too-far) Leaves   -                7


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.2                 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Jatropha tanjorensis commonly called “hospital-too-far” or ïyana-ipaja” (Yoruba), “ugu-oyibo” (Igbo) belongs to the family Euphorbiceae and is widely grown in Southern Nigeria (Sofowora., 1993). In Southern Nigeria, it is called “Catholic vegetable” or “Reverend father’s vegetable”, possibly because it is grown in the premises of the Catholic churches as ornamentals. The plant has been used locally as a source of edible leaves vegetable and as a medicinal plant for a number of years (Iwalewa et al., 2005).

The leaves extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties that makes it a popular remedy for the treatment for diabetic, malaria and hypertension in this region. It was reported that administration of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves powder to rabbits resulted in improvement in hematological indices which revealed an enhancement of bone marrow function (Orhue et al., 2008).


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