COMBINED EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND ALLIUM SATIVUM ON LIPID PROLIFE PARAMETERS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

COMBINED EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND ALLIUM SATIVUM ON LIPID PROLIFE PARAMETERS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page          -          -          -          -          -          -          -         -          -          -     -         i

Cover page       -          -                      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Certification     -          -          -          -          -          -          -         -          -        -       -           iii

Dedication        -          -           -          -          -         -          -          -         -          -    -           iv

Acknowledgment       -          -          -          -          -          -          -         -          -      -           v

Abstract            -           -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -         -   -           vi

Table of content         -           -         -           -         -           -          -          -         -     -           vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Statement of the problem-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.3       Aim/Objectives of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5

1.4       Justification of the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE OF RELATED REVIEW

2.1       History of Diabetes-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.2       Classification of Diabetes-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.3       Medicinal Plants-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4       Gongronema latifolium-          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.5       Nutritional Composition-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.6       Pharmacological Properties-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.7       Medicinal Properties-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.8       Antidiabetic Properties and Antibacterial Properties-            -           -           -           17

2.8.1    Regulation of blood glucose level-     -           -           -           -           -           -           20

2.8.2    Mechanism of Blood Glucose Regulation-    -           -           -           -           -           20

2.9       Allium sativum-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           25

2.9.1    Anti-oxidant and anti-microbial effects-        -           -           -           -           -           26

2.9.2    Lipid Profile-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           28

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Collection, Authentication and Preparation of the Plant Sample-      -           -           30

3.2       Extraction of Plant Sample-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           30

3.3       Experimental Animals/Design-           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

3.4       Induction of Experimental Diabetes in Rats- -           -           -           -           -           32

3.5       Collection of Blood Sample-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           33

3.6       Materials-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           33

3.7       Lipid Profile Test-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           34

3.8       Serum Cholesterol Assay-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           35

3.9       Serum Triglyceride Assay-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           37

3.9.1    HDL-Cholesterol Assay-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38

3.9.2    Total Lipid Assay-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           39

3.9.3    Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-c)-        -           -           -           -           40

3.9.4    Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c)-        -           -           -           41

3.9.5    Data Analysis- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           42

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Results-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           43

4.2       Discussion-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Conclusion-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           47

  5.2      Recommendation-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           47

            References


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia which results from malfunction in insulin secretion and/or insulin action, both causing impaired metabolism of glucose, lipids and proteins (Mayfield, 1995; Kim et al., 2006). It is prevalent worldwide and known to be one of the major causes of death. The disease affects approximately 135 million people in the world and it is projected to affect about 300 million individuals by the year 2030. (Egede et al., 2011). Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease; it is a group of heterogeneous syndromes such as heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes which is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and type2 diabetes which is caused by insulin resistant coupled by a failure of the beta cells to compensate.

Numerous studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with anti-hyperglycaemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus (Egede et al., 2011). The plant kingdom has become a target for the search of biologically active lead compounds by multinational drug companies. Many of these medicinal plants and herbs are also part of our diet as species, vegetables and fruits. They are a potential source of many drugs used in modern medicine, for example, quinine, opium, alkaloids, atropine, cardiac glycosides (digitals) and the popular hypoglycaemic drug Glucophage (metformin), derived from Galega officinalis(Anderson, 2004). Despite these modern, there is still increased demand in traditional medicine which can be taken in as extract or as diet to cure or prevent diabetes.

A wide and diverse range of plants have been reported to prevent and treat diabetes. Several phytochemical including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosidase, glycolipid, galactomaman, polysaccharides, peptidoglycan, hypoglycans, guanidine, steroids, carbohydrates, glycopeptides, terpenoids, amino acids, saponins, dietary fibres and inorganic ions affects various metabolic cascades, which directly or indirectly affect the level of glucose in the human body. These have produced potent hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic and glucose suppressive activities .The above effect achieved by either increase in serum insulin level or increase in the production of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, inhibit glucose absorption in the guts, stimulate glycogenesis in liver or increase glucose utilization by the body. These compounds also exhibit their anti-oxidant hypolipodemic, anticataract activities, restored enzymatic functions, repair and regeneration of pancreatic islet and alleviation of liver and renal damage.

The study is looking at how garlic (Allium sativum) and utazi (Gongronema latifolum) affects diabetes, its effect on blood glucose and serum lipid profile. Gongronema latifolium locally called utazi in the South eastern part Nigeria is a medium sized shrub with petiolate green leave of about 6mm diameter and elliptic in shape. This study is designed to evaluate the activity of both herbaceous plant on blood glucose and blood lipids of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rat.(Oguntola, 2013).

Serum lipid elevation has been of great concern to clinicians because of its potential health complications. Hyperlipidaemia has been implicated in many disease conditions like arteriosclerosis, hypertension, stroke and other illness.(Bella et al, 2000)

Lipid profile is also called lipid panel, it is a panel of blood tests that serves as initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides (Ades et al,2000).The result of this test can determine certain genetic disorders  and can determine approximate risk for cardiovascular diseases, certain forms of pancreatitis and other complicated pathological diseases. The component of lipid prolife include; Low density lipoprotein(LDL), High density lipoprotein(HDL), Triglycerides, Total cholesterol and Very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) (Sidhu and Naugler, 2012).

1.2   Statement of the problem      

Medicinal plants play important roles in the management of diabetes especially in resource-limited countries. In Nigeria, herbal medicines including polyherbal therapy is widely practiced. The combination of various types of agents from different plant sources could have synergistic, potentiative, antagonistic pharmacological and therapeutic effects with minimum side effects.

It has been observed that plant and its materials has been increasingly been consumed in many parts of the world, it is also seen in mostly Africa that people rely on traditional medicine which may involve the use of selected plants which may include the leaves, stems, barks and fruits of this plants. This may be due to their ready availability and cost-effectiveness which is in sharp contrast to the western medicine which is rather expensive and not readily available (Chijioke et al., 2013)

A decoction of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium is used to treat diabetes. It has been reported that its reduces fasting blood sugar in obese subjects (Ink et al., 2005)

There have been speculations that these plant products after consumption have effect on blood glucose and lipid profile. The incidence of diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia are on the increase in Nigerian population and the economic status of most of the affected individuals pose great hindrance in procuring the effective but expensive drugs. However, adverse effects associated with these therapeutic drugs call for the evaluation of other alternative sources for managing these diseases (Kiortsis DN, 2007). In recent times, food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat various types of diseases and the current shift away from the use of synthetic chemicals in food processing necessitate a further evaluation of this widely available but underutilized tropical medicinal plants (Deng R.,2012) . This research work is therefore aimed at exploring the potential effects of Gongronema latifolium (Utazi) and Allium Sativum (Garlic) on blood glucose and lipid profile in human subjects. (Eleyinmi AF., 2007)

          Herbal medicines are believed to be more effective when taken in combination. In particular, herbal medicines taken orally are combined and immersed in locally brewed gin for a short period of time for effective extraction of the active ingredients of the herbs. The gin extracts of the herbs are taken in homes.

1.2   Aim/Objectives of the Study

The aim of therapy in type II diabetes has always been to reduce hyperglyceamia using several approches: Sulphonylureas (increase insuline release from pancreatic islets); Metformin (reduces hepatic glucose production); Thiazolidines (enhance insulin actions); α-glu


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