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1.1 Background of the Study
The word “poultry” came from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word Pullus, which means small animals. “The American Heritage dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Company by American Heritage, (2006). Poultry however are domesticated birds kept my human for meat, feather, and most often for the production of eggs. These birds are most typically members of the super order Gallanserea (fowl), especially the order galliformes (which include chicken, quails and turkeys). Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat such as pigeons (known as squabs) but do not include similar wild bird hunted for sport or food known as game.
The demonstration of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This may have originally been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity. Selecting breeds for fast growth, egg-laying ability, and conformation took place over the centuries and modern breeds often look very different from their wild ancestors. Although some birds available in the market today are reared in intensive commercial enterprises poultry is the most widely eaten type of meat globally and along with eggs, provides nutritionally beneficial food contained high quality protein accompanied by a low fat. Online etymology dictionary. Etymonline.com. retrieved February 12, 2014. All poultry should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked in order to reduce the risk of food poisoning.
Today’s domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) is mainly from the wild red jungle fowl of Asia, with some additional input from grey jungle fowl.
Domestication is believed to have taken place between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, and what are thought to be fossilized chicken bones have been found in north eastern China data to around 5,400. By 4,000 years ago, chickens seem to have reached the in dus valley and 250 year later, they arrived in Egypt. They were still used for fighting and where regarded as symbols of fertility. The romans used them in division and the Egyptians made a break through when they learned the difficult technique of artificial incubation. Since then, the keeping of chickens has spread around the world for the production of food with the domestic fowl being a valuable source of both eggs and meat (Michael, 1999). Quali past and present, domestic fowl research (pp.11-18).
Housing is a very important factor for poultry farming and how to build a poultry house depends on the choice of the farmer and the number of birds to be used. The designs of the poultry house for bends or broilers in some countries is not always based on engineering and scientific foundation, but on some incorrect information. The system of poultry housing to be adopted depends on category type of birds, climate conditions capacity to invest and strength of birds. Sometimes combination of two or more system is also followed depending on need and convenience of operations for farming, free range poultry denotes a method of poultry farming husbandry where the birds, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an endosome for 24hours each day. This is adopted only when adequate land is available crowing. The average stocking density of adult birds in this system is 750 per hectare (www.coursehero.com/adult-birds-perhecter
1.2 Statement of Problem
Majority of poultry farmer are facing a low production rate of eggs, meat, etc, to meet up with the increasing population. However, the use of software in designing a standard poultry house to overcome both climatic and environmental conditions has equally been limited. Therefore there is a great need in designing a poultry house with the target of providing possible solutions to the problem of land management and increase in productivity.
1.3 Aim of Project
The aim of the project is to design a poultry house, with 4,000 layer capacity.
1.4 Objective of Project
· To design a poultry house that can house large number of birds even on limited land case
· To know the stock density of birds per square meter
· To study the design characteristics of poultry house design
· To identify the merits and demerits of a good poultry design
1.5 Significance of Study
Poultry farmers in Nigeria have since in the past suffered from the loss and sudden death of poultry birds. This has discouraged many of such farmers on embarking on poultry farming. Thus, have reduced the supply of meet, egg, which is a good source of protein.
Hence the designing of this standard poultry house will serve as a base that will provide information for farmers who are willing to go into a large scale poultry farming irrespective of the less availability of land.
Most importantly, it serves as a skill acquisition to the student and also of benefit to the department because it creates business opportunities for individuals who could go into large poultry farming.
1.6 Basic Terminologies related to poultry keeping
Aviary; A multi-tier barn system with nests and perches at a number of heights or multiple tiers which consist of a raised slatted area providing perching and access to food / water at each level. Barn A building that houses layer hens as either a single or multiple groups, with or without access to an outdoor area but with an area for nesting, perching and scratching. Barns with access outdoors are usually referred to as free range and the building can be either fixed or moveable. If a barn has multiple internal levels it is often referred to as an aviary and/or multi-tier system.
Beak tipping or trimming; the removal of the upper and lower tips of the beak (maximum 25%).
Brooding; The management of chicks from day-old to four weeks of age.
Cage; A cage is an enclosure constructed of metal or plastic and holding 3-7 hens.
Claw shortening devices; Abrasive device or flooring for scratching.
Colony; cages A colony cage is a modified and enlarged enclosure with more space than cages and with perching, nesting and scratching areas. Colony cages may also be referred to as furnished or enriched cages.
Controlled environment an enclosed insulated building containing layer hens which provides control of lighting, ventilation and temperature, with feed, water and egg collection also usually automated.
Day-old chicks; these chicks up to 72 hours of age (surviving on their internal yolk sack).
Depopulation; Removal of all hens, usually at end of lay, from the particular environment.
Embryonated egg; a fertilized egg which contains a developing chick embryo.
End of lay; when laying is terminated, either naturally or as a management practice.
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