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TABLE OF CONTENT
Tittle page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - 1
1.1.1 Important of groundwater - - - - - - - 2
1.1.2 Uses of groundwater - - - - - - - 3
1.2 Statement of problem - - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Aims and objectives of study - - - - - - 4
1.3.1 Aims - - - - - - - - - - 4
1.3.2 Objectives - - - - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significant of work - - - - - - - - 5
1.5 Scope of the study - - - - - - - - 5
2.0 Groundwater - - - - - - - - - 6
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 6
2.1.1 Groundwater Contamination - - - - - - 6
2.1.2 Self-purification of polluted ground water - - - - 7
2.1.3 Aquifer - - - - - - - - - 7
2.2 Method of investigation groundwater occurrence geophysical method 9
2.2.1Electric logging - - - - - - - - 10
2.2.2Upper Aquifer system - - - - - - - 12
2.2.3Seismic retraction surveying - - - - - - 13
2.2.4Geological method - - - - - - - - 14
2.2.5Hydrological investigation method - - - - - 15
2.2.6 Test drilling - - - - - - - - - 16
3.0 Materials and methods - - - - - - - 17
3.1 Location - - - - - - - - - - 17
3.2 Survey and layout plan - - - - - - - 17
3.2.1 Tools and materials - - - - - - - 18
3.2.2 Market survey and materials procurement - - - - 19
3.3 Mounting the overhead tank - - - - - - 19
3.3.1 Tank fitting and connection - - - - - - 20
3.4 Procedure - - - - - - - - - 20
3.5 Precautions - - - - - - - - - 22
4.0 Construction and cost analysis - - - - - - 23
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 23
4.2 Cost analysis - - - - - - - - - 23
4.3 Miscellaneous cost - - - - - - - - 24
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 25
5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - - 26
Reference - - - - - - - - - - 28
1.1 Background of the study
A borehole is a narrow shaft bore in the ground, either vertically or horizontal. A borehole may be constructed for many different purposes, including the extraction of Wath Hell G (2008) Engineering and Environmental consultant use the term borehole to collectively describe all of the various types of holes drilled as part of geotechnical investigation or environmental site assessment also called phase II ESA, Mith (1968). This include holes advanced in sampling equipment or to install monitoring wells or piezometer.
A borehole is along narrow well drilled to access underground water. The borehole is covered with a hand pump to revent contamination and to ease access. Before a borehole can be build, technicians and community leaders must work together to find the optimal location and drill a test borehole to ensure the quality.
Borehole water is the water obtained from borehole drilled into the aquifer to ground water zone, which is usually a fully saturated subterraneau zone, some distance below the water table Nwri (1997).
Groundwater is the beneath. The surface where all the voids in the rocks and soil are filled. It is a source of water for well, boreholes and spring. A borehole is a hydraulic structure which when properly designed and constructed, permits to economic withdrawal of water from an aquifer. It is a narrow well drilled with machine.
1.1.1 IMPORTANCE OF GROUNDWATER
Groundwater, which is in aquifers below the surface of the earth, is one of the nation most important natural resources. Ground water is the source of about 33% percent of the water that country and city water department supply to households and business. Public supply it provides drinking water for more than 90% percent of the rural population who do not get their water delivered of them from a country/city water department or private water company. Even some major cities rely solely on ground water for all their needs. About 42% percent of the water use for irrigation comes from groundwater withdrawals of groundwater are expected to rise as the population increase and available site for surface reservoirs becomes more limited.
About 23% percent of the freshwater came from ground water source. The other 77% percent came from surface water. Groundwater is an especially important natural resources in those parts of the country that don’t have sample surface water sources such as arid west. It often takes more work and costs more to access groundwater as opposed to surface water, but where there is little water on the land surface; groundwater can supply the water needs of people uses water science school.
1.1.2 USES OF GROUNDWATER
Groundwater is one human most valuable natural resource. Groundwater is the water contained in the rock and soil layers beneath earth’s surface, and it makes up most of earth’s supply of fresh, liquid water. The ocean and ice in the north and south poles contain 99% percent of earth’s total water supply. Groundwater account for almost all of the remaining 1%.
Throughout history, human have settles in areas with plentiful and pre groundwater and have fought to own and protect wells and spring. Today human water needs in many arid dry or heavily populated regions for exceed surface water supplies earth’s rapidly growing human population is becoming increasingly reliant on groundwater fills wells and city water suppliers.
Groundwater is used to cool nuclear reactors that generate electricity, mix concrete and manufacture millions of consumer products in short ground water plays a vital role in almost every face to people’s lives, from drinking buildings in which people live and work. Leurie.Duc.can,ph.D;and minehard.ph.D.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The water installation and distribution of the pipes network of the department has be damage and are no longer given water to the department they have been used for the past years ago, due to the rust of the iron pipes used and cause a blockage on the pipes. The department experience shortage of water due to erratic supply from the public water board. Thus there is need to installed and distributed alternative water supply to the department.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
· To install ad connect pipes network from the borehole to department main building
· To install overhead tanks to store water from the borehole
· Is to installed and distribute water supply network in the department of agricultural and bio-environmental engineering of Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna.
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF WORK
The borehole needs to be constructed in the department to serve as an alternative water supply in the department and also to the neighboring department
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project work is limited to the installation of water distribution system for the department.
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