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Title page                                                                                         i

Approval page                                                                                ii

Declaration                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                                           viii


Background of the study                                                                1

Statement of the problem                                                              6

Purpose of the study                                                                      7

Significance of the study                                                               7

Research questions                                                                       8

Scope of the study                                                                         8


Introduction                                                                                     9

Major categories                                                                                       15

Diversity of rice and related wild species                                              23

Nutrient and nutritional importance of rice                                   23

Steps involved in processing and package of rice (usaid 2009)        33


Area of the study                                                                                      36

Design of the study                                                                        36

Population of the study                                                                            37

Sample and sampling procedure                                                  37    

Instrument for data collection                                                                  37

Validation of instrument                                                                  38    

Reliability of instrument for data collection                                  38

Method of data collection                                                              38

Method of data analysis                                                                39


CHAPTER FIVE:         SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                                                                   RECOMMENDATIONS

Re-statement of the problems                                                       49

Summary of the procedure                                                            50

Major findings                                                                                 50

Conclusion                                                                                      51

Recommendations                                                                         51

Limitation                                                                                         52

Suggestions for further study                                                                 52

References                                                                                               53

Appendix                                                                                         55


The study sought to assess strategies for improving rice processing and packaging among farmers in edu, moro and patigi kwara north senatorial zone, kwara state. The specific purposes the study were to improve farmers method of drying, to improve farmers method of threshing and to assist farmers with modern ideas or means of parboiling, polishing, whitening, destoning of paddy rice and to improve farmers method of storage. Three research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 2112 while sixty were sampled. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kwara North Senatorial Zone. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Simple frequency and percentage statistics were employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that adequacy of drying is not easily achieved especially during unfavorable weather condition, the labour intensity is low when using mechanical means of drying rice, over drying of rice causes cracking of rice husk among others. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include government should assist the rice farmers in the study areas with the provision of rice processing machines such as winnower, thresher, miler, destoner, parboiler and dehusker, Government should assist farmers with credit facilities so as to improve the quality and quantity of rice production in Edu, Moro and Patigi Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state among others.



Background of the study

Rice (oryza sativa) as a main source of nourishment for over half of the world population, rice is by far one of the most important commercial food crops. Its annual yield world wide is approximately 535 millions tons. Fifty countries produce rice with china and India supporting 50% of total production.

During the last two decades, rice has moved from a ceremonial to a staple food in many Nigeria homes. Statistics from the European association of agricultural economics, EAAE (2005) indicates that Nigeria is by far the largest rice importer in West Africa, with an average yearly import of 1.6 million tons of milled rice while annual consumption per capital stand at 29kg and this has continued to rise, induced by income growth.

Rice in it’s basic form is known as “rough rice” and is still covered by a non-edible hull or husk.

At the mill, rush rice is processed through sorting machines that clean the kernels and foreign matters.

The hull is removed leaving brown rice with the bran layers still surrounding the rice kernels, grains of brown rice may be milled by removing the bran layers revealing white rice because the most nutritious layers of the rice grain  have been removed in the milling process, the white rice enriched to restore the original level of thiamin, niacin and iron.

According to united state Agency an international development (USAID), presently, Nigeria rice sub-sector is dominated by weak and inefficient producer market linkage due to poor infrastructure including lack of improved processing facilities, low rice productivity, poor post- harvesting and storage.

Expensive and poor access to input (high quality seed fertilizer and crop protection products), inadequate market information, low capacity to meet quality standards and limited efficiency of distribution networks.

The stagnation of rice yield in many Asian countries. Also, the intensification of rice production has cause considerable damage to the environment and natural resources, including the build-up of salinity/alkanity, water pollution and health hazards due to excessive use of agro-chemicals and the emission of important green house gases. Concern about genetic erosion in rice production is also increasing.

There are about 800 million people in the world toady who are still suffering from malnutrition.

Moreover, during the past four decades, the unit cost of rice production decreased by 30percent while the price of rice decreased by more than 40 percent. The currently low prices of rice in international markets are major constraints to the improvement of the livelihood of small rice farmers, although they are helpful for poor families in urban centers.

The sustainability of rice-based production systems is fundamental to the world’s food security and livelihoods. The world food summit (WFS), convened in November 1996 in Rome, called for coordinated global action to secure food security for the world’s population. The WFS: five years  later, held from 10 to 13 June 2002 in Rome, renewed the global commitment made in the Rome declaration at the first summit to accelerate the implementation of the WFS plan of action.

Looking ahead 30 years, scientific estimated that feeding the population would require 75% more rice than the 1996 production, for a total of 850 millions tones of paddy rice. Meeting the challenge of sustainable rice-based production is vital not only for food security but also for the alleviation of the poverty of several hundred million poor families in low-income and developing countries.

Kwara state is one of the major rice producing state in Nigeria. It is blessed with abundant resources in terms of land mass, rich soil and climatic condition suitable for rice production (Kwara state agricultural development project, 2004) rice is a strategic commodity in the Nigeria economy. The government has therefore intervened to boost it’s production in the country with focus on direct investment  last thirty years in may ways previous administrations in Nigeria has made deliberate effort to stimulate and encourage rice production in the programmes and institutions which were meant to increase rice production.

The significant factors affecting small scale rice production in Edu, Moro, Patigi local government areas of Kwara state, Nigeria. Are rice farm size, labour input, fertilizer and quality of rice seeds. With the exception of farm land which was underutilized in rice production, this study shows that labour, fertilizers and seeds input were inefficiently over utilized. The study recommends the need for farmers to have improved access to farmland and improved technology of rice production (Department of agriculture economics and farm management, University of Ilorin P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Accepted 11 February, 2010) Kwara state was created in May 1967. It comprises of 16 local government areas with a population estimate of about 2.3 million people (2006 census). The state shares boundaries with Oyo, Ondo and Osun to the south, Kebbi and Niger to the North, Kogi to the east and republic of Benin on the west side. The daily temperature range between 210c to 330c. the state has two district climate seasons:- the wet (Rainy) and the dry (Harmattan) seasons (Kwara ministry of agriculture 2004).

The study was conducted in Patigi local government areas, in the ecological zone B of the state. Patigi L.G.A and adjoining local government area, Edu and Moro are the major rice producing area of the state. The geographical location of these rice producing areas fall within the latitude 80-30-90 ooN and longititude 5000-6020E. Rice production is much favored in this north eastern part of the state as a result of the natural fertile land of the flood plains of the River Niger that stretches from Jebba/Bacita through Shonga in Edu to Gakpon in Patigi local government areas of the state. The vegetation in the northern parts of Kwara state, of which Patigi local government areas in one, is savannah grass land while to the southern flanks are wooded guinea savannah. There exists in the study area an intermingling of loamy, clay and sandy soil. All the aforementioned allied with good climate conditions and farmers experience have combined to place Kwara state in a very much competitive position and advantage in rice production with other rice producing states in the country (Kwara state ministry of agriculture 2004)

Farmers at this locations perceived ecological factors as main constraint to production. Fluctuating rainfall patterns is one main ecological factor pointed, improved seed, agrichemical, processing machines, lack of access to vital inputs at affordable price, micro credit, placing less emphasis on dry season irrigation, rice processing machines such as destoner, husk remover, paddy separation, whitening or polishing processing machine, rice milling, equipment used and the skill of the mill operator are unavailable to Patigi, Edu and Moro Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state.

The journal of agricultural and social research (2011), stated out factors in rice processing among farmers on Patagi, Edu and Moro Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state which includes lack of processing machines, financial constraints, illiteracy, poor access to input, inadequate storage facilities, pests and disease, poor transportation, fluctuation in climate and inadequacy  of extension service agent.

It is recommended that government should assist the rice farmers in the study areas with the provision of rice processing machines (such as winnower, threshers, miller, destoner, parboiler and dehusker e.t.c) and credit facilities so as to improve the quality and quantity of rice production on Patigi, Edu and Moro Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state.

Statement of the problem

Most of the problem faced farmer in Patigi, Edu and Moro Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state on processing and packaging/storage of rice areas.

Adequacy of drying is not easily achieved, to the cultural method of drying. Farmers in this areas, mostly used prevailing method of threshing with sticks which causes the cracking of rice husks.

There quality of milled rice is affected by the level of cleanliness of paddy due to lack mechanism to destone the rice.

Purpose of the study

The study seek to identify the strategies to be adopted for improving processing and package of rice production in Edu, Moro and Patagi Kwara north senatorial zone, Kwara state.

1.   To improve farmers method of drying

2.   To improve farmers method of threshing

3.   To assist farmers with modern of ideas or means or parboiling, polishing, whitening, destoning of paddy rice and to improve farmers method of storage.

Significance of the study

1.   The finding of this study will be of benefit to the farmers, by improving farmers method of drying.

2.   The study will also be of immense benefit to the farmers by helping them to improve on their method of threshing.

3.   The finding of this study will be of benefit to the state government to assist farmers with modern equipment such as destoner, thresher, parboiling and polishing machines.

4.   The finding of this study will also be of great benefit to both farmers and consumers with an improved method of storage.

Research questions

The study seeks to answer the following question

1.   What are the various improve methods of drying to be adopted by the farmers?

2.   What are the modern method of threshing to be adopted by the farmers?

3.   What are the new ideas or means of parboiling, polishing, whitening, destoning of paddy rice and to improve farmers method of storage?

Scope of the study

The study seeks to identify the improved practices of processing and packaging/ storage of rice production in Edu, Patigi and Moro Kwara state north senatorial zone, Kwara state specifically the study tends to address post harvest activities i.e drying of paddy, threshing (i.e separating grains from the panicle of threshing grain, drying of the cleans paddy, bagging/storage.                  

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