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The crop processing side laboratory dealt with in this project ,or involved in this project, was initiated for a long period in this department due to lack of implementation of equipment. The installation of the crop processing side laboratory was carried out by the students to equip the laboratory of agricultural products in any situation or set of condition that is conductive investigation and observation etc. in anything suggestive to scientifically laboratory. This report set out details and segment of the crop processing side laboratory. This report also outlines problems, achievements and experience from the reality of the installation excise.
1.1 Background of the Study
After harvesting, farm products are subject to attack by insect pests and micro-organisms if they are not properly kept. To reduce the incidence of pests and to avoid spoilage, agricultural products are kept in special places either for long or short periods depending on when they are sent to the market or used as input during the next planting season. The phase of post-harvest system during which the products are keep in such a way to guarantee food security and effectively keeping away pests and microorganisms from harvested agricultural products to avoid spoilage is called storage (Nas, 2011).
Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or greatly slow down spoilage loss of quality, edibility or nutritive value] caused or accelerated by microorganisms. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria,fungi and other micro-organisms as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which causes rancidity. It also includes process to inhibit natural ageing and discoloration that can occur during food preparation such as enzymatic browning reaction in apples which causes browning when apples are cut. Some preservation methods require that the food should be sealed after treatment to prevent recontamination with microbes. Most product begin to undergo deterioration as soon as they are harvested. The agent of spoilage includes enzymes, environmental conditions [moisture], insect, rodents, microorganisms and metabolism [respiration]. The main function of food storage structure is to control the activities of these agent thus, preserve the material in such a way that there is no marked different between when the product is due for storage and when it is taken out of storage. The design of the storage yard space in the department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental engineering should be planned to best accommodate business service requirements and the products to be stored/handled. The economics of modern commercial warehouses dictate that goods are processed in minimal turn-around time.
There are two general objectives which planners should seek to meet through careful organization of the site for construction. First, the site must be designed to maximize efficiency of operation in order to promote worker productivity, to shorten project time and to reduce cost. Second, the final plan must create a project with a good work environment in order to attract and retain the best personnel and thus contribute to better work quality and productivity (Michael 2010). The problem of site layout planning has been solved by researchers using two distinctly techniques: optimization and heuristics. Mathematical optimization procedures have been designed to produce the optimum solutions. The heuristic methods, on the other hand, used to produce good but not optimal solutions. However, the first category cannot be adopted for large projects, and the second category is the only available mean for solving the complex real life projects.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Installation of crop processing side laboratory focus on making the laboratory functional and efficient, while providing a safe and comfortable environment for the student to research and protects in the field of agricultural engineering. All these are lacking in the department. These are what the project intend to address.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
1.3.1 Aim of the study
The aim of this research is to install crop processing laboratory in the department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Specifically that will help student in research and practice of crop processing.
1.3.2 Objectives of the study
i. To determine a suitable area for the installation of crop processing side laboratory
ii. To measure the required dimensions for the structure as well as determining a reasonable height for the structure
iii. To determine suitable material for the laboratory
1.4 Scope of the study
The scope of this project is limited to the design and installation of a crop processing laboratory using suitable materials on a given area in the department of agricultural and bio-environmental engineering.
1.5 Significance of the Research (Study)
This research should be useful to both researchers and practitioners who deal with installation of crop processing laboratory
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