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The origin of topography comes from “topo” for “place” and graphic for “writing” its closely related to geology and surveying which are concerned with accurately the land surface. And it’s also closely tied to geography and mapping system the GIS,

Evaluation is the distinguishing factor for topography maps. In GIS, we use digital elevation model for terrain. Ten out of ten topography maps shows contour lines which are just lines of equal elevation. The narrow definition of topography is specific to the arrangement of land forms.

But in a loader sense, it incorporates natural and artificial features. For example:

Topography maps often tie in administrative boundaries, cities, hydrographic parks, transportation and buildings, contour lines (Iso-lines) connect points of equal elevation by reading contours. We interpret height slope and shape in topography maps.

If contours are close together the slop is steep. But when contours are spread apart the slope is more gradual. We use contours for mountains valleys and bathymetry. For example, Mount Fuji stands at 3,776 meter spacing each contour lines represents equal elevations. Almost at the place of mountain Fuji. It is a 3750 meter contour line.

There is no “World Authority” in topography mapping instead each country set their mapping agency designs their own topography maps with a specific goal in mind. For example constructing a meal high way might drive a topographic ma to feature wood land cover, soil types or rock classification along the route, overtime topographic map series often het periodic updates, but the true is that they can be complex and take years to create. In the United States, the first USGS topographic map was surveyed in 1892. Since then, map revision have continued for over 125+ years. The USGS procedure topo maps at 1:250,000, 1:100,000, 1:63, 360, 000 and 1:24,000. The most common is the 7:5 minute quadrangle series where one inch in the map representing 24,000 inches on the ground.

Another good example of topographic map is the USGS topes fug of time and terrain this colorful map, its overlays topography (hill shade) with understanding rock formations. This helps unravel the geologic history of the continent such as mountain building events.

Topography Application and Uses

Topography maps show how rivers flow, how high mountain rise and how steep valleys descend. They lay out the land such as in these examples.

Engineering use topographic maps to plan a road, construct a called tower or plan a hydro electric dam.

Geologist Use Topography to Understand telboric activity . Land forms and where to dig a mine

Hackers use topographic map to fund trials and steepness of slope to plan their ascent.

Astronomers study the topography outside earth like on the moon, mars or an as steroid climate scientist tie topography into climate models to recognize air and water-flow. As landscapes evolve and technology advances topographers face an uphill battle for accuracy and completeness

1.1            AIM OF THE STUDY

This study aims of carrying out a topographic survey of government technical college Idah Kogi State.


This study is out to archive the following objectives

i.          Reconstitute a sight in synthesized image of the ground.

ii.        Determine of trajectory of over flight of the ground.

iii.     Calculate surface or volumes.

iv.     Trace topographic profile.


Engineers need a topographical survey to see the surface of elevation of the land and whether dirt must be inserted or removed to adjust the property grade

Architect could use the survey for construction of 3D plot of their design this plot can be submitted before talking with decision makers for approval of a building site is transited by significant topographical challenges such as steep grades, existing main made structure’s or other problematic conditions a topographical inspection should be used to ensure that the design proposed will work under these conditions before construction start.

Government agencies also users topographical surveys to produce employment evaluate existing infrastmeture, carry out required revisions and consider environmental projects and emplace mat the construction and zooming regulation. 


Time is a common basic for the land surveyor. But talking about time management or organization problem, instead the vast amount of time some owners hold there properties can precut challenge for the surveyor. In short, a property that has been in a family for generation has undergone change that are not reflected in the original deeds and streams change channels the physical evidence upholding the legal land transcoption has simply vanished into the most of time on top of vanished makers. Accommodation for neighbors and other understandings that were never formally documented can blur the property lines, sometimes catching the current owners ny surprise. Slope of land that have long been used by overcome around are found to be private property or a fence been placed along an uncovered boundary but never corrected new owner comes along and the first survey in decades highlights the surveyors applied as much art as science in defining the boundaries of mutigenerational properties

Weather and Seasonal Changes; weather and seasonal changes of the season present another challenge. The perfect environment for a survey is really to be found. Land surveyors could wish that all the tics were bare have this ground clear of leaves, with comfortable transperature and the night light you client often have this luxury. Bright sunlight creates deep shadow which masks features. They make surface wet and even when the rain stops water drop from the trees. The wind that comes with the rain is difficult to walk while carrying expensive equipment cold and freeze the surveyor and the lubrication required for the instruments to operate smoothly many of today’s electronics tools have don’t always match what mother nature makes available.

1.5            SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study aim of carrying out topographical survey at Government Technical Collage Idah, Kogi State. However it out to achieve the following objectives reconstitute a sight synthesized image of the ground at the Government technical collage idah, Kogi state. Determine a trajectory of a flight of the ground at the government technical collage idah, kogi state. Calculate the surface area of government technical collage have the topographical profile of Government Technical Collage Idah, Kogi State.

1.6            STUDY AREA

The study area is Government Technical Collage Idah, Kogi State.



Field survey notes are the records of work done on the field. They contain the complete graphic table or winters (or combination thereof) survey records


This is the stage where I and the other member of the of the group planned on how the survey projects will be done and by sharing and showing everybody’s position and contribution to be made in the course of the project to selecting and testing instrument and other equipment to be used on the field during this projection down to the creation of works office recce.

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