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1.1 Background of the Study
In Nigeria manufacturing as modern activity is relatively resent in the history of its economic development. Previously, what was practice in the country was the craft industry (Oguntoyimbo, 2012). Among the product of the craft industry that then featured in local and inter-regional trade were artifacts of woods, brass and bronze, leather, hand woven textiles and bags, iron working from charcoal forges, and ﬁre burnt pottery from local clay.
According to Oguntoyimbo, (2012), the craft industry of Nigeria has experienced considerable collapse in the face of the superior competition of other economic activities, particularly factory and service industries.
Industry and industrialization among other factors can be seen as a vital means of boosting the economic development of an area. It is means of measuring development attainment of an area. This explains why the developing countries pursue the goal of industrialization with keen determination. This is to achieve goal like revenue generation by government, provision of job opportunities to people living in the industrial regions and to also provide social infrastructure to the area close to the industries. The industrial sector in Kaduna is an energy consuming sector that consist all facilities and equipment used for producing, processes or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following types of activities like manufacturing, agriculture ﬁshing, hunting and so on.
This sector is undergoing major restructuring in production, marketing and management practices, the outcome of which may have serious implication for the survival of the industry itself and livelihood of those who work in it. Like many developing countries that attempt to industrialize in the l960’s and l970’s, industrialization has been heavily import — dependent and largely protected by an overvalued currency, tariff barriers and in some cases, state subsidies. Thus even before the onset of the current economic crisis, the industrial sector suffered from very serious structural imbalances. These imbalances are manifested in the linkages between the various sub sectors of industry, particularly the consumer intermediate and capital goods industries, with the bulk of manufacturing capacity concentrated in the consumer goods sector. The intermediate goods sector is relatively underdeveloped and the capital goods sector almost nonexistent factories depend for their full operation on the importation of essential raw materials, spare parts and machinery (Terribo et al, 2009).
Schatzl (2010), further stressed the factors attributed for industrial development and are, the availability of abundant natural resources and size of the domestic market. He also added that the geographical diversity of the raw materials coupled with extensive man power have growth promoting effect of the economic sector of Nigeria, of which Kaduna was included. This industrialization process, however, was accentuated by competition of foreign enterprise for Nigerians market and accelerated by the industrial policy of the government.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
It is generally held that industrial development is the 'pace-setter' for the overall development of an economy. It enhances the rate of productivity which, in turn, increases the rate of exchange, growth and development of the economy.
Industries in cities are the nexus of economic growth and physical development - because they produce goods and services, and attract other industries and commercial activities and take up more space. That is, they act as pull-factor in the growth and development process of the urban areas.
However, despite their contribution to economic and physical growth and development of towns, some industries are associated with problems owing to the effluent they discharge into the environment. The effluents pollute the air, water and land, thereby adversely affecting the physical environment and the overall wellbeing of the urban inhabitants.
In an attempt to regulate the nuisance created by industries, physical planners have evolved and enforced landuse zoning regulations in the towns. This is to ensure efficiency and functionality of the towns. Hence industrial locations are considered as a critical aspect in urban planning.
To this end, an industrial location policy was affected through the establishment of industrial areas in Nigerian cities. These areas are planned to promote and ensure an orderly location of industries in the cities. This is because; it must take into account the site suitability in relation to economic viability, physical compatibility, accessibility, city amenity and aesthetic.
The long standing practice of allocating land for industrial development in the form of industrial areas has always been seen by both government and physical planners, and indeed industrialists in Nigeria, as a measure of providing lasting and effective solution to the physical planning problems associated with industries in cities.
But this measure, as can be seen today, in most of the industrial areas in Nigerian cities, is not as effective as can be expected. The physical planning problems of incompatibility to connecting landuses, unplanned physical growth and environmental pollution are still manifested in many areas. Moreover, due to the poor planning of industries in cities, there are haphazard growth of industrial establishments and uncontrolled development around the industrial areas.
Studies have been carried out on the issue of industrial location and development in Nigeria. Notable among them are Sokolski (2011), Hakaam (2007), Schatz! (2013), Suleiman (2003).
These studies were centered on industrialization as an aspect of regional development. The works of Aboyade (2008) were equally based on the need for national industrial location and development policy in Nigeria. Other studies by Vagale et al (2015), Abdu (2003), Yari (2010) were concerned with design principles and standards for industrial areas in selected Nigerian cities. These studies have ignored, to a large extent, the aspect of industrial compatibility to connecting landuses, unplanned physical growth and environmental quality of the city.
It is not clear whether industrial areas were comprehensively planned to integrate connecting landuses, or in spite of industrial area planning, connecting landuses have grown to engulf the existing industrial areas, or indeed both. That is, the aspect of industrial landuse development, its compatibility to connecting landuses, and its impact on physical growth and environmental quality of the city are not adequately examined.
It is therefore, the concern of this study to examine the industrial landuse development and its impact on connecting landuses, environmental quality and physical growth of Kaduna.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
Aim: The aim of this study is to analysis the effects of industrial landuse connecting areas in Kaduna Town and providing sound solutions to the effect.
Objectives: The above aim is to be accomplished through the following objectives:
i. Identify the industrial land uses and affected areas first
ii. Determine the effects of industrial activities on the study areas
iii. Analyze, the impact of industrial land uses effects on the study areas
iv. Evolve appropriate principles and planning strategies for solving and averting the existing problems of industrial landuse development in Kaduna.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The study is about industrial landuse development. Its focus is on urban physical planning problems of industrial activity on the connecting landuses, environmental quality and physical growth of Kaduna. It is therefore based on physical planning principles in practice of industrial landuse planning around Kaduna Town.
1.5 Justification of the Study
The industrial landuse is situated in Kaduna Town which is the study area. A research into the analysis of the effects of industrial landuse on connecting areas in Kaduna Town is very important because of the contribution of large size of these industries to socio-economic development of Kaduna. This research is important as it is based on industrial landuse in Kaduna Town.
This study, if well studied will provide solution to the effects of industrial landuse on connecting areas in Kaduna Town, particularly issues related to urban physical planning problems of industrial activity on the connecting landuses, and environmental quality and physical growth of Kaduna.
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