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BACKGROUND TO STUDY
Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do: to understand landform history and dynamics, and predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within geology, geodesy, geography, archaeology, and civil and environmental engineering. Early studies in geomorphology are the
foundation for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science. Landforms evolve in response to a combination of natural and anthropogenic processes. The landscape is built up through tectonic uplift and volcanism. Denudation occurs by erosion and mass wasting, which produces sediment that is transported and deposited elsewhere within the landscape or off the coast. Landscapes are also lowered by subsidence, either due to tectonics or physical changes in underlying sedimentary deposits. These processes are each influenced differently by climate, ecology, and human activity.
Practical applications of geomorphology include measuring the effects of climate change, hazard assessments including landslide prediction and mitigation, river control and restoration, coastal protection, and even assessing the presence of water on Mars.
In spite of the frequent onslaught by the dynamically changing seasonal processes and frequent disaster like cyclone, the coastal regime still remains as an attractive piece of land on the terrestrial surface, owing to it’s ever moisture regimes, flourishing agricultural fields, highly charged natural resources and the ever enjoyable beach resorts. Hence, the coastal zone has become an interesting area warranting regular monitoring so that the population as well as the natural resources can be well protected.
Of the total length of 7,500 km Nigeria’s coastline, most of the regions are under sustained erosion and subjected to various changes. Different types of coastal landforms are being resulted from the action of variety of natural agents. These landforms speak indirectly the tell - tale of their origin and the turbulences, they have undergone since their formation. In the coastal region of Nigeria, East coast is differing from West coast in the nature of geomorphic landforms and evolution (Ahmad, 1972).
The East coast is indented with major river deltas like Ganges, Godavari, Bhramaputra, Cauvery, etc., whereas the West coast is characterized by the
absence of river deltas. Moreover, East coast constitutes alluvial deposits and
extensively developed beaches. On the contrary the West coastline shows
highly irregular nature with cliffed pocket beaches and wave eroded beaches.
Coastal regions have attracted researcher’s attention due to the increasing
and imminent threat of sea level rise and its possible implications.
Statement of problem
Environmental geomorphology has emerged very recently during 1960’s as
a part of applied geomorphology which deals with landforms and landscape in relation to the impact of human interferences on natural landform process and vice versa. The growing importance of this sub-discipline of geomorphology in identifying, evaluating, decision-making and managing of various problems arising out of landform-man interaction has led in recent years to take up more and more effective studies.
Accordingly such studies have quite largely appeared in the developed countries. The developing countries like Nigeria are also not lagging far behind as such studies bear a great practical significance. It has been observed that many geomohologists like, Goudie (1984), Cooke and Doornkamp (1974) worked on theoretical approaches, while many others have exercised in finding genesis, causes, impact and solution of environmental problems of geomorphic significance in the practical direction of the sub-discipline.
Like the development of other things, the geomorphological matter and development are also no doubt dynamic. The term ‘dynamic’ denotes constant changes, while the ‘dynamics’ as used in the title of the thesis refers to the constant change of landform including its characteristics because of the influence of natural forces and processes on the one hand, and the human interferences on the other. Landforms, though apparently static in their locations, have ever been changing their surface and even the structure and inherent dynamics get changed due to a number of causes.
Exogenetic forces along with human interferences are acting on landforms composed of hills, highland and lowlands to change their surfaces in a sort of accelerated way. Such an accelerated change creates a number of environmental pattern and problems of geomorphic as well as non- geomorphic significances. It is observed that various kinds of landforms have rendered burning problems before land mangers, planners and administrations. For this reason hills, hill slopes, highland, plains and lowlands much interfered by man in some specific areas specially within or near the areas of high population concentration have been one of the major thrust areas for research investigation not only in developed countries but also in developing countries like Nigeria. Of late, the geomorphologic face of some areas in Nigeria’s south east has been seen to have rapid changes.
Because of intensive interference of human agents with the surface area of polobubuo covering an area of 240km2 there have been continuous changes of
both the physical and cultural morphology. The the low-lying plains have been filled up by earth derived from, the natural drainage in the area are highly made inefficient because of human aggression, the artificial drainage are made to be loaded with debris.
The present study area has now been with a number of serious problems of geomorphic and environmental significances. Being impressed by the present scenario of geomorphic development yielding a peculiar and unique geomorphology and environment in Polobubuo Area In Warri Lga Delta state.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In the context of the basic tenet of geomorphology and environment of the
study area, the following objectives are formulated
i) To examine the dimension and variation of geomorphic processes responsible and the influence of human activities.
ii) To examine the locational aspects of different kinds of landforms existences influencing fluvio-geomorphic environment of the area.
iii) To examine the dynamic behaviour of the area in terms of geologic,
geophysical and topographic and hydrologic conditions.
i) What is the dimension and variation of geomorphic processes responsible and the influence of human activities?
ii) what is the locational aspects of different kinds of landforms in existences influencing fluvio-geomorphic environment of the area?
iii) what is the dynamic behaviour of the area in terms of geologic, geophysical and topographic and hydrologic conditions?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study lies also on the need of the evaluation of environmental problems of geomorphic significance. With the advances of time problems (landslide, hill cutting, flash flood and water logging) have become very serious and complicated which have been pushed for their control, mitigation, eradication, etc. Therefore, a detailed study of these problems is very essential to find strategies for their practical solution in near future. Otherwise these problems will definitely cause endless sufferings to the people of the city. Furthermore, this study will be a good data base for future plan, and be a great help for the study of urban geomorphology and environment of other areas.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the geomorphical features and human activity as the influence land resources in Polobubuo Area In Warri Lga Delta state. The physical characteristics of the Region are relevant features taking into consideration for the purpose of this study.
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