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This project was aimed at producing a digital topographical plan of the Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State. The first chapter of the project covers the introductory aspects. Literature review was discussed in chapter two, and chapter three talked about the methodology.
Hence, reconnaissance surveys both field and office were carried out in order to be familiar with the nature of the terrain and the requisition and assembling together of viable information from both primary and secondary sources of data respectively. The spatial data were acquired through the use of total station. The processes of traversing, leveling, spot heighting and detailing were simultaneous carried out with the use of the digital equipment (i.e total station), in the determination of the spatial coordinates (Northings, Eastings and Heights) of the boundary stations proposed for future developments (spot heighting). In the database design, creation and management stage, Arcview GIS 3.2A was used to design the spatial database.
Spatial analysis and presentation were discussed in chapter four. The topographical plan of the area of study was produced in soft copy at a scale of 1,5000. The interpretation of this plan support decision making policy needed by Environmental-oriented professionals (such as Estate Surveyors, Engineers, urban and regional planners, Architects
and even land surveyors) to plan, design and execute vital infrastructural
projects. Conclusively, chapter five contained the summary, conclusions
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Topographical survey constitute of a very important tool, enabling the platform upon which the design, and implementation of most physical and infrastructural development on the surface of the earth were based.
The production of topographical plans as a type of geographical document is characterized by small or large scaled detailed and qualitative representation of relief using contour line. Hence both man-made and natural feature can be properly and adequately depicted in a topographical plan.
The increased advancement in digital surveying technology based on the use of modern sophisticated computers and digital survey equipments and the availability of new tools had transformed topographical map production from the traditional and conventional techniques into digital techniques. Currently, the availability of fast computer and digital data acquisition technology and digital data processing along with information presentation technology have brought a revolution into map making through the GIS application. And these make decision making easy and faster.
The invent of GIS database (which is flexible and versatile) is necessary to meet the need of the fast growing economic situation that demand more effective and efficient decision making in land use and general urban planning system. Hence in achieving such an accurate and versatile database of any information system, its design (model) and implementation must be handled with proper care and high integrity, in order to provide the user with refined, accurate and adequate information. Queries can be formulated by the users such as queries of the information system that answers to his or her questions, provided by the information has to be presented to him or her either graphically or in alpha numeric format.
Topographic survey technique systematically and analytically provide coordinate values of relevant features such as buildings, roads electric poles, bore holes in horizontal and vertical dimension including points on the ground surface in addition to spot heights value of the area from which contours are drawn. Structuring the data which are obtained by surveying technique and finally by using high speed digital electronic computer with appropriate programme (software) to design and create database for relevant features and to interpolate elevation at any place. Therefore
information generated and analysed could be used for various designs of engineering project and environmental based applications such as roads, drainages, bridges, large structures and structural buildings.
The major sources of data for topographic information system include the following:
1) Field surveying method using GPS, total station
2) Manual digitizing using digitizer
3) Scanning by using scanners
4) Aerial images
5) Satellite images
This project deals with the production of digital topographic
plan of Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State. The data were acquired with the use of total station. Also, with the use of automated hardware and software, the data could then be further processed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Environmental development is on an increase rate, where by new structures are erected on daily basis and changes are caused to the physical earth surface which need rapid and regular updating of various developmental projects within the environment.
The use of analogue equipment has always been a problem especially in the human stress and updating of different changes cause to the environs. It is difficult to accurately and timely update topographic map with the use of the old analogue survey instrument.
The introduction of sophisticated computers, modern technology and methods for digital topographic map production, had really help to overcome the prevailing problems, associated with analogue method of topographic plan production. Information got from the previous analogue method of plan production had effect on planning and construction of necessary amenities such as roads pipeline, construction, buildings, electricity and water network system needed in the institution for easy planning and further development. But with the new modern digital equipment digital production of topographic plan of Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State could be achieved and used for effective decision making policy.
Morealso, to achieve an orderly and sustainable development, the creation of a viable spatial database including its associated graphic information for the project site is also very needed.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of the project is to produce a digital topographic map of Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State with the application of digital survey equipments including geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Hence, with this new techniques the cost of updating, manipulating and analyzing spatial geographic information could be reduced to a minimum level.
In achieving the above state aim, the following objectives belo
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