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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The home is a mini society and the society grows out of the home. The child is conceived at home and born at home, so the home is its first port of call (Odunukwe, 2008). The child moves from the home to the community and then to the society at large. According to Ikulayo (2003) the home is the first social contact in any human groupings and it is seen by sociologists as the microcosm (or a replica) of a society.
At home, the interaction among various variables goes a long way in determining the type of behavior children are likely to exhibit (Olayinka, 1995, Omoegun 1995 and Dowell, 1996). These various variables of the home as enumerated by Odunukwe (2008) are type of parents, home atmosphere, socio-economic status of the parents, family size, birth order, relationship with other sibling and social cultural setting in which a child is born. All these affect the child as he is growing and even up to his working life.
Ikejiaku (2006) is of the opinion that the type of behaviour an indivdial develops is reflected in the kind of upbringing he receives Ijeoma in Odunukwe (2008) believes that sound personality development is achieved through healthy child rearing practices in the home. According to this author, a child inherits some behavioural traits from his parents and that good home gives the child a sense of security, love and mutual respect among others and allows the chil to think ahead for a fruitful future. A child who enjoys no love from the home is bound to develop several behavioural problems such as hatred for others in later life.
Oladele (1989) in Ikejiaku 2006) summarizes the influence of various home variables on mal-adaptive behaviour of children as follows:
1. The rejecting home promotes submissiveness feelings of insecurity, nervousness and non- compliance.
2. The overprotecting home promotes infantile and with drawal reactions, submissiveness, feelings of insecurity, jealousy and nervousness.
3. Dominating parents have dependable, shy, submissive, polities, self-conscious children.
4. Submissive parents have aggressive, careless, disobedient, independent and self-confident children.
5. Disharmonious homes promotes aggressive, neurotic, jealous, delinquent, unco-operative children.
6. Harmonious homes promote co-operation, good adjustments, superior achievement and independence.
7. Defecting home promotes poorly adjusted, aggressive, jealous, diligent and neurotic children.
Since the home is the first port of call, the child’s social world and relationship begin with the family and then widened as the child grows older. So, the type of behaviour and attitudes of parents and other home variables affect to a large extent the child’s behavioural development.
Based on the picture presented above, the researcher therefore examined the various home variables such as socio-economic status of parents, birth-order, family size and child-rearing approach and how they influence maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos. State.
1.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Seven models have been used to explain the cause of maladaptive, maladjusted behaviour. These models are:
1. Cognitive model
2. Medical model
3. Humanistic model
4. Behavioural model
5. Psycho-analytic model
6. Socio-cultural model
7. Eclectic model
1.2.1 COGNITIVE MODEL
Cognitive perspective- “the school of psychology” that examines internal mental processes such as creativity, perception, thinking problem solving, memory and language; cognitive psychologists are interested in how a person understands, diagnosis and solves a problem, concerning themselves with the mental processes that mediate between stimulus and response. This view of maladaptive or maladjusted behaviour focuses on the mental process. The model postulates that thoughts and beliefs of the individual is central to the maladjusted behaviour he/she manifests. Among the leading scholars in this field is Gestalt.
This model suggests that the root cause of maladjusted behaviour will be found in the physical examination of the individual, such as hormonal imbalance, chemical deficiency, brain injury, etc.
According to this model, and individual is judged to be maladaptive if the person can be assigned to a psychiatric category of DSM-IV or ICD-IO. Because many types of maladaptive behaviour have been linked to biological causes, the medical model seems to be a reasonable approach, athough Brunner (1993) has however report that recent advances in our understanding of the biological bases of behaviour have supported the importance of considering physiological causes in abnormal or maladjusted behaviour.
1.2.3 HUMANISTIC MODEL
The model of maladjusted behaviour focuses on the control and responsibility that people have for their own behaviour. It concentrates on what is uniquely human, viewing people as basically rational and motivated to get along with others. (Rogers, 1980). This model also views people as having an awareness of life and constantly searching for meaning and self-worth. It argues that, as long as people’s behaviours are not hurting to other and they do bot feel personal distress they should be free to choose the behaviours they engage in. however, the short fall of humanistic model lies in its reliance on unscientific, unverifiable information (Aldridge, 1989).
1.2.4 BEHAVIOURAL MODEL
This school believes that maladjustment behaviours are equally acquired just as we acquire normal behaviours. It also explains that when an individual has a maladjusted behaviour, it is the behaviour that is the problem not the person. They believe since such behaviour has been learned, they can also be unlearned.
According to the school, the person exhibiting any maladjusted haviour is not sick. He can unlearn it through retraining or conditioning. Among the leading proponents of this view are B.F Skinner and J.B Watson.
1.2.5 PSYCHO-ANALYTIC MODEL
This perspective seems to strongly support this study. It explains that maladaptive behaviour is learned within a social context ranging from the family, to the community, to the culture. According to this model the individual’s behavoiur is said to be maladjusted if it does not conform to the established culture of a society.
1.2.7 ELECTIC MODEL
This model behaviour that maladaptive behaviour is not caused by a singular factor, rather than the interaction of various factors. Therefore, it proposes that maladjusted individuals can be helped combining at least two treatment models or techniques or even more.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Adesua in Odunukwe (2008) lamented that the average Nigerian home is no more alive to its unique responsibilities. Many parents have ignorantly or unconsciously abandoned the training of their children in the pursuit of wealth (Olusakin and Ubungha, 1996).
Apart from this, most home are the seat of violence, spousal abuse and problems. It is increasing becoming difficult these days to come by home environment where all things work in good order for the child. In most cases, the reverse is the case.
Coupled with these, is the ever increasing population of our society where the home is seen as the human manufacturing company. Thus, some homes are oversized, giving no adequate provision and security for her members.
Closely related to that is the incidence of maladjusted adults the make up the home. For instance some of the parents are known for unhealthy behaviours such as smoking fighting, disruptive behvaiours, immorality, social deviance and disregard for law, to mention a few.
Consequent upon these problem there is an alarming rate in the increase of maladjusted behaviour among our adolescents. Today, our school, churches/mosques, and society are dominated by maladjusted adolescents.
Pringly in Ifeoma (1996) in the recent and related study discovered that prisons, mental homes, rehabilitation hospitals, remand homes constrain a high proportion of adolescents who from their homes lacked consistent continuous and concerned care. This according to Odunnukwe (2008) is disastrous to the individual and the society at large.
Based on this, the study examined the influence of home variables on maladjusted behaviour among adolescences in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to ascertain the extent to which the have variables influence maladjusted behaviour of adolescents. The researcher limits this study to these variables: family or home type, child-reaining approach, family size, socio-economic status of parent and this study therefore examined the influence of:
1. Home type on maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
2. Child-rearing approach on maladjusted behaviour among adolescents.
3. Family- size on maladjusted behaviour behaviour among adolescents.
4. Socio-economic status of parents on maladjusted behaviour among adolescents.
5. Family relationship on maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The questions guide the study
1. Is there any relationship between home type and maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
2. What will be the relationship between child-rearing approach and maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
3. Does any relationship exist between family size and maladjusted behaviour?
4. Would there be a significant relationship between socio-economics status of parents and maladjusted behaviour among adolescent in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
5. Does family relationship coverlates with maladjusted behaviour among adolescent Local Area of Lagos State?.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
There hypotheses guided the study:
1. There will be no significant relationship between home type and maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Lcoal government Area of Lagos State.
2. There will be no significant relationship between child-rearing approach and maladjusted behaviour among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
3. There will be no significant relationship between family size and maladjusted behaviour among adolescents from Isolo Local Government Aread of Lagos State.
4. Socio-economic status of parents will not be significantly correlated with maladjustment among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
5. Family relationship will not be significant correlated with maladjustment among adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The outcome fo this study will be of great benefit to the home, the school system, the teachers, the counselors and parents as well as the society at large.
The study will highlight the role played by the home in the development of maladjusted behaviour among adolescents. Thus, equipping the home to play her proper roles to enhance positive behavioural development.
Also, it will identify how to enhance parents-child relationship thereby developing adjusted behaviours among adolescents.
The school will benefit form the study because it will highlight the roles of the school in assisting students from different homes especially those with maladjusted behaviour. It will help the school counselor to ascertain where, when and how to assist adolescents unlearn their maladjusted behvaiour and put up healthy behvaiour.
Above all, the society will see the need to be upright in their behaviour because adolescent model these maladjusted behaviours from members of the society.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers home variables and maladjusted behaviours. The home variables of interest to the researcher are the home type, child rearing approach, family size, socio-economic status of parent and family relationship.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to adolescents in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, the study takes a global view of issue investigated.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Home variable: These are factors associated directly with the home. Home variables are many among which are home type, family size, birth-order, parenting style, e.t.c. most studies have linked personality development to variables present in the home.
2. Mal-adjusted behaviour: This sis a form of behaviour which is believed to fall short of the standard of the society. In other word maladjusted behaviour is that behaviour which does not conform to the established culture of a society.
Among adolescents, these behaviours include sexual deviance, violence and criminality, drug addiction, delinquency, lawlessness, examination malpractice e.t.c.
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