GENDER AND FAMILY TYPE AS FACTORS INFLUENCING ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR OF WORKERS

GENDER AND FAMILY TYPE AS FACTORS INFLUENCING ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR OF WORKERS

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CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background of the study

According to Harris, (2013) of the 46 chromosomes in the human genome, 45 are unisex (Harris, 2013). Harris further said that female and male are for that reason similar in many physical and traits, such as age of setting teething, and walking.  They are also alike in many psychological traits, such as overall vocabulary, certainty, intelligence, self-esteem and happiness (Harris, 2013). Actually, there are some differences and it is this difference, not the similarities that capture attention and make news. Researchers in the main stream sociological tradition exemplified by Limp-man Blumen (2014) have argued that people first acquire gender through socialization in childhood. It has been argued that people kin a large number of studies that boys act differently toward girls from birth onward. In the first 24 hours after birth, according to one study, parents described boys as more alert stronger and firmer and girls as less attentive, weaker and more fragile, this go a long way in determining the behavior of the child in all aspect of his or her development including assertiveness (Limp-man Blumen, 2014).  

However, gender is virtually assessed in every study that evaluated treatment, retention and outcome (Berrigan& Garfield, 2011). People expect woman to behave unassertively. Berrigan and colleague opined that, women also avoid behaviours that do not fit the feminine role and when they do engage in “masculine assertiveness” they are likely to encounter disbelief or even hostility from others. Women tend to be very agreeable because they want to have good social support and they may be hard to achieve consensus (Berrigan& Garfield, 2011). Men and women speak different (Tannen, 2009). Men tend to be more aggressive speakers than women (Poynton, 2010) and women tend to be more polite (Newcombe&Arnkoft, 2007). Because of this difference, women tend to be judged lower in assertiveness than men (Cakoft, 2005). The alternate perspective emphasized that powerless speech styles are used by both genders. When one has little central or power over a task, one may become uncomfortable performing the task, and this may end up speaking in a powerless style (Wheelam& Verdi, 2005). According to Colman (2003) gender is defined as non-technically synonym for sex, especially in feminist psychology, the behavioural, social and cultural attributes associated with sex. More so, Cherlin (2009) construed gender as the social and cultural characteristics that distinguish women and men in the society. Therefore, being assertive will be subjected under this factor to investigate how it differs or manifest in these two different individuals. Behavioural change due to age is striking especially changes on physical appearance (Casmir &Auerbach, 2008).

            However, it is a well known fact that the family type such as monopoly and polygamous has a great influence on our behavior as well as the one of workers.  The family, being a powerful influence on the worker’s behaviour and its importance as a primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the positive behavior of workers depending on the social climate in the family. Variance in psycho-social emotional fortification in the monogamy and polygamy family background could be an indicator to negative or positive behavior of workers (Adika, 2012).  Research on this aspect has not been exhaustively liked into in Nigeria where the two types of family system is actively practiced bearing in mind the intervening effect of   high and low socio-economic status and emotional stability of workers which is a prerequisite to behavior certainty (Adebule, 2004).

Still, Wilkins (2006) emphasized that in the monogamous family, favourable working environment is created, while Adika (2012) noted that conflicts are relatively easier to solve in the monogamous than in the polygamous families. Moreover, less psychological disturbance is envisaged in the former than in the latter. Workers from polygamous families are therefore more likely to experience more problems than workers from monogamous families. This will invariably influence their behavior.  This is because psychological problems are potential sources of trouble with learning. It is therefore against these that the study sought to determine gender and family types (monogamy and polygamy) as factors influencing assertive behavior of workers (Agulanna, 2014).    

            Assertive behaviour means standing up for your rights and expressing your truths without shrinking from what you want to communicate. Assertiveness also includes recognizing and expecting the equality, rights and truth of other people (Changingmind.org, 2008). Behavior which enables a person to act in his/her own best  interest to stand up for herself, without undue anxiety, to express interest, feeling, comfortable; or exercise personal rights without changing the right of others, we call Assertive behavior (Alberti& Emmons, 2009)

1.2       Statement of the problem

            Waller and Hill, (2014) maintain that family crisis resulting from instability is something that makes one strive for a different and unusual solution of the problem. Any rupturing of family relationships which forces reorganization of the family pattern not only constitutes a family crisis but is also a threat to family unity.However, according to Agulanna, (2014) the cause of family instability depends on the type of family each worker is born into, in this case negative family pressures might quicken the breakdown of the family. Furthermore, polygamy has negative effects and influences on mental health workers. It is confirmed that family structure has main effects on mental health for human; so the biggest problem in polygamous families is families will be more aggressive, have disorder sin conducts and behavior, difficulties in communication and adjustment problems.

Additionally, family conflict is considered as usual pheromone in polygamous families (Berrigan& Garfield, 2011). All such factors and problems have undoubted negative influences and impacts on employees in their life in general. This might even lead to many workers having mental problems, social difficulties and low educational level. In addition, client-worker relationship may be poor and not effective because of some remembered conflict happening often in polygamous families. Adika (2012) noted that conflicts are relatively easier to solve in the monogamous than in the polygamous families. Moreover, less psychological disturbance is envisaged in the former than in the latter. Workers from polygamous families are therefore more likely to experience more problems than workers from monogamous families. This will invariably influence their behavior (Adika, 2012).


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