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1.1. Background to the Study
The growing increase in industrialization and globalization which emphasized on free trade turned the world into a global village; this created a negative effect on the world system. One major effect of this is the increasing gap between the advanced industrialist countries and the less developed countries, which reduced the developing countries to a dumping ground of the developed nations; this led to environmental challenges which were intertwined with economic and social conditions. This development in the view of some scholars led to the adoption of the term, sustainable development, so as to promote harmony among human beings and between humanity and nature (United Nations, 1987).
The popularization of the term started with the United Nations Conference for environment and development (the Earth Summit) in 1992. The conference was prompted by the Brundtland Commission which called for strategies to strengthen efforts to promote sustainable and environmentally sound development. Akpokos (2010) opined that sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. However, corruption in its various forms is generally believed to be an obstacle to development and sustainable development, as it leads to numerous problems which are perpetuated through its diversion of public funds for private gain. Therefore, it is believed that despite international efforts to promote sustainable development, corruption in the domestic political system has hindered its achievement. The damage corruption has done to the polity is unimaginable; it is one of the many unresolved problems that have critically delayed and skewed development and sustainable development of Nigeria.
Akombo (2012) opined that the historical background of corruption can be traced to colonialism. It remains a long-term major political and economic challenge for Nigeria and Kubau. It is no doubt a universal malaise and it is prevalent even in the richest countries of the world. Aluko (2008) argued that corruption is as old as humanity. He reported the existence of widespread illegality and corrupt practices in ancient civilizations such as Roman Empire, Greek-city States and Ancient Egypt. Electoral corruption that is similarly referred to as ‘Political God Father’ in Nigeria politics as well as in Kubau, was also common in Britain and the United States of America particularly in the mid 19th and early 20th centuries respectively. He further argued that it is much more prevalent in developing societies like Kubau than in developed economies as a result of widespread of poverty in these societies.
Corruption has resulted to the slow movement of files in offices, police extortion along major highways and road blocks, diversion and misapplication of funds for private and diversion of agricultural incentives to private gain, negligence to work, electoral irregularities, absence of adequate infrastructures, poverty, among others. The rise of public administration and the incursion of the military into governance, particularly with the advent of the oil boom are seen to have led to a high increase in corrupt practices in the country. Despite, all measures by Nigerian government through the establishment of different anti-corrupt agencies, Kubau is still faced with the problem of corruption, making sustainable development in the local government handicapped, as most attention is directed towards the utilization of the little available resources for the satisfaction of present needs. It is therefore in view of its persistence and popularity in Kubau that this research aims at examining the causes of corruption, its impact and how it can be effectively managed.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
Corruption has become a serious problem in Kubau, despite all efforts made by different anti-corrupt bodies and organization to reduce this menace, Kubau Local Government today is still faced with this problem, these problems comprises of high poverty rate, unequal distribution of resources, falling standard of educational activities, absence of adequate infrastructures, and absence of agricultural incentives all which emanates from high level of corruption because the council leaders were alleged to have misapplied and diverted the resources needed for the provisions of these services for their private gain, which hinders equitable distribution of wealth, and thus creates a great threat to the attainment of sustainable development.
This study seeks to examine the causes of perceived corruption and its impact on sustainable development in Kubau Local Government (2008-2013) so as to examine the measures to be taken to bring Kubau out of the level of corruption it is currently facing.
1.3. Research Questions
In the course of this study, the research will find answers to the following research questions.
1. What are the major causes of perceived corruption within Kubau Local Government Council Administration?
2. How does perceived corruption in Kubau Local Government affect sustainable development in the Local Government?
3. In what ways could perceived corruption in Kubau Local Government council be reduced to improve sustainable development in the Local Government?
1.4. Objectives of the study
The objectives of this research are as follows:
i. To examine the causes of perceived corruption in Kubau Local Government council.
ii. To examine the effect of perceived corruption on sustainable development in Kubau Local Government Area.
iii. To suggest solutions to the problems of perceived corruption in Kubau Local Government.
The propositions that this study intends to test are as follows:
i. Greed and over ambition of council leadership might have contributed to corrupt practices in Kubau Local Government Area.
ii. Misapplication and diversion of Kubau Local Government funds for private gain might have affected sustainable development in the Local Government.
iii. The corrupt practices in Kubau Local Government could have been reduced if punishable measures were put in place to check erring council leaders.
1.6. Significance of the Study
This research deals with the causes of corruption and its impact on sustainable development in Kubau Local Government (2008-2013). An empirical analysis of this kind is very important because it will serve as a means of enlightenment to the people of the Local Government on the negative effect of corruption and the need to reduce it. It will also serve as a guide to those who may wish or want to conduct further research on corruption and its threat to sustainable development in Kubau Local Government Area. It is also to suggest possible solutions on how to improve sustainable development by reducing corrupt practices in the Local Government.
1.7 Scope and Limitations
The research is aimed at examining the causes of corruption and its impact on sustainable development in Kubau Local Government Area between 2008 and 2013. The Local Government is made up of several independent ethnic groups, which have many things in common. The Local Government consists of eleven wards; therefore, the study will be restricted to the eleven wards of the Local Government and also to the chosen period under study.
The limitations of this study include the inadequate information from respondents especially the political leaders as some might tend to be indifferent towards the filling of questionnaire as a result of the topic of the research work. Time and Financial resources is yet another problem, however, the above limitations will not affect the reliability and validity of the research.
I intend to adopt the qualitative and quantitative method of data analysis. In the qualitative method, secondary sources will be used to gather information from literatures, journals, newspapers, Governmental publications, commentaries, unpublished works and internet materials, etc., and the data collected will be used in introducing the research study, reviewing of literatures, analyzing theoretical framework and definition of terms. While the quantitative method will be based on primary source acquired through the administration of questionnaire using the systematic random sampling method. The primary source would help to confirm, fill data and information gap and also update those available from the secondary sources. The questionnaire would help to ascertain the existing practice and to obtain their perceptions on the subject matter.
The local government comprises of eleven (11) wards. A total number of 88 questionnaires will be administered drawing respondents from the eleven wards by equal sharing of the questionnaire among the targeted group which cut across sex, age, occupation etc. in Kubau Local Government. The use of systematic random sampling method involves selecting every nth elements or person from the target population. The nth elements represent the desired respondents that should be included in the sample chosen in a sequential order hence the term systemic. The first nth person is selected in a random manner and the rest follow a systematic order, for instance; every 5th house or person along a street in an area being studied, the rest may even follow a sequence of say every 10th, 20th, 30th, 50th or 100th persons. This sequential choice is discretionary but depends on the size of the population as well as the sample size. The nth persons may be chosen from a list containing the members of the population if such list exits and the use of such list save time and effort. This method is therefore easy to adopt as well as easy to cross-check the inclusion or non-inclusion of nth elements. The presentation and analysis of the data will be based on the descriptive method of data analysis in such a way that the data collected will be presented and processed into tables, figures, percentages and frequencies for further understanding.
1.1. Definition of Terms
Corruption in this study simply means the diversion of funds, goods and services of the general public for personal benefit and the giving of gifts either in kind or in cash for the exchange of public funds.
Development here refers to a positive change, growth, improvement and advancement in the cultural, economic, social and political lives of the society, so as to encourage the state and their society to adequately carry out their responsibility.
Sustainable development in this study means the ability of the present generation to develop and enjoy it without affecting the future generation’s ability to develop.
1.2. Organization of Study
This research work is made up of five chapters, these include;
Chapter one which contains the general introduction which includes: background of the study, statement of the research problem, objectives of the research, proposition, scope and limitations, significant of the study, research methodology and definition of terms then lastly, is the outline of chapters.
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