KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION, PRACTICES AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON IMMUNIZATION AMONG MOTHERS/CAREGIVERS OF CHILDREN AGED 12-23 MONTHS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION, PRACTICES AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON IMMUNIZATION AMONG MOTHERS/CAREGIVERS OF CHILDREN AGED 12-23 MONTHS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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SUMMARY

Immunization is one of the safest and most effective interventions to prevent disease and early

child death. Although, about three quarters of the world‘s child population is reached with the

required vaccines, only half of the children in Sub-Saharan Africa get access to basic

immunization. In Nigeria, only 10% of children in the North West geographical region are fully

immunized compared to 52% in the South East and South West regions. Immunity gap created

by this low immunization coverage in Northern Nigeria favors the emergence and transmission

of some vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) especially measles and polio. Knowledge and

perception of mothers/caregivers regarding VPDs favour demand and utilization of

immunization services. This study was thus, carried out to assess the knowledge, perception and

practices of mothers/caregivers on routine immunization in children aged 12-23 months in

Kaduna State, determine the sources of information on routine immunization and other factors

associated with uptake of routine immunization among mothers/caregivers of children aged 12-

23 months in Kaduna State.

A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using multistage sampling technique; 379

eligible mothers/caregivers were recruited. Data collection was done using semi structured

interviewer-administered    questionnaire     to    obtain    information    on    socio-demographics,

knowledge, perception and practices of mothers/caregivers towards routine immunization and

sources of information on routine immunization. Data were analyzed using Epi infoTM version 7.

A total of 379 respondents were interviewed. Of these, majority (64.67%) practiced Islam , less

than half (41.95%) completed Secondary school while about one-quarter (25.07%) were aged

30-34 years. . In addition, most (64.91%) were unemployed, 92.25% were married while 52.82%

were from rural settlements. Among the children whose mothers/caregivers were interviewed, xii


majority (43.01%) were between aged 16-19months old, 53.30% were females while most

(62.80%) fell within the birth order of 2nd -5th child . Only 59 (15.6%) of these children were

found to be fully immunized, evidenced by vaccination card history. Furthermore, among the

respondents, majority (64.4%) had unsatisfactory knowledge while 55.36% and 54.0% exhibited

poor perception and bad practices respectively, regarding routine immunization. Commonest

source of information was radio (61.61%). Educational status and good perception of mothers

were found to be associated with getting information on routine immunization within 12months

prior to this study while Polygamous family setting, unsatisfactory knowledge and bad practices

of mothers were independently associated with lack of information on routine immunization.

In conclusion the research showed that mother‘s educational status, family setting, knowledge,

perception and practices about immunization are important factors that influence access to

routine immunization information which are ultimately predictors of full child immunization. It

is therefore recommended that Kaduna state government should create convenient adult

education classes to improve educational status of mothers and be committed to girl-child

education. The state should intensify sensitization of mothers/caregivers on routine

immunization using radio and television jingles through the Ministry of information to improve

their knowledge and utilization of routine immunization service.

Key words: Routine Immunization, information, mothers/caregivers

xiii


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Immunization is one of the safest and most effective interventions to prevent disease and

early child death. Although, about three quarters of the world‘s child population is reached

with the required vaccines, only half of the children in Sub-Saharan Africa get access to basic

immunization. In recent years, many countries have employed a growing range of strategies

to increase both the provision and utilization of immunization services. These experiences are

in consonant with the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) of ―using a

combination of approaches to reach everyone targeted for immunization‖.1

A substantial number of children worldwide do not complete immunization schedules

because neither health services nor conventional communication mechanisms regularly reach

their communities. In some communities, low immunization rates are associated with

families living a long distance from health services, having little access or exposure to large-

scale or local media, and low doctor- and nurse-patient ratios (e.g. slum-dwellers in the

Philippines and South Africa, nomadic populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, and internal

migrants in Brazil, Cameroon, and Mozambique). Underserved communities have

consistently shown low immunization coverage.


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